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http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&langpair=en%7Cru&u=http://www.tokelau.com/

Ӭ֬լ֬߬ڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ:

Tokelau is a non-self-governing territory of New Zealand consisting of three coral atolls in the South Pacific: Atafu, Nukunonu, and Fakaofo. These atolls lie approximately mid-way between Hawaii and New Zealand and about 500 km north of Samoa. ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬ Ӭݬ֬ ѬެѬӬݬ֬۬ ֬ڬڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ, ڬ ڬ ֬ ܬѬݬݬӬ Ѭݬݬ ج߬ Ѭ ڬԬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬: Ѭ, ܬ߬߬ ѬܬѬ. Ѭݬݬ ݬ֬جѬ ڬެ֬߬ ߬ ݬ ެ֬جլ ѬӬѬ۬ެ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ, ڬެ֬߬ 500 ܬ ֬Ӭ֬ Ѭެ.

Ҭ٬

Formerly known as the Union Islands, the name 'Tokelau Islands' was adopted in 1946 and then shortened to 'Tokelau' in 1976. Ѭ߬֬ ڬ٬Ӭ֬߬ ܬѬ Ӭ, ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ "Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ ڬ߬ 1946 Ԭլ, ٬Ѭ֬ ܬѬڬݬ լ ܬ֬ݬѬ 1976 Ԭլ.

The roughly 1500 hardy inhabitants of Tokelau, unofficially known as Tokelauans, are thought to have settled the islands more than a thousand years ago- thus, they are generically recognized as being Polynesians (and darn proud of it) - and this pride fits well with their culture... ڬެ֬߬ 1500 Ѭլ جڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ߬֬ڬڬѬݬ߬ ڬ٬Ӭ֬߬ ܬѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬѬ ݬѬԬѬ, ֬֬ ӬѬ Ҭݬ֬ ݬ֬ ߬Ѭ٬Ѭ, Ѭܬڬ ҬѬ٬, ߬ Ԭ֬߬֬ڬ֬ܬ ڬ٬߬Ѭ߬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬֬ ( Ѭ Ԭլڬ ڬ) - Ԭլ ֬Ѭ֬ ڬ ܬݬ ...

ѬܬѬ Atoll.
ѬܬѬ Village.
Ѭڬ ڬ ѬܬѬ Village.
ܬ߬߬ ڬ߬ Ѭ߬.
ܬ߬߬ Ӭڬ߬.
ܬ߬߬ Resort.
ܬݬ߬ڬܬ - ѬܬѬ.
լڬ Ӭ֬ݬ֬.
ڬ   Fa, ܬ߬߬.
ڬӬ߬Ѭ ݬѬլܬ ܬݬ ߬ Ѭ.
Ѭ Atoll.
ܬ߬߬ Ѭݬ ڬ Ӭ٬լ.
ѬܬѬ ڬݬݬڬլ ڬ Ӭ٬լ
ܬѬ֬Ӭ  ܬ֬ݬѬ.
ڬ  Falefa, ܬ߬߬.
ڬ FIA ߬, ܬ߬߬.
ڬ FIA ߬, ܬ߬߬.
լܬѬ, Ѭ.
ҬѬݬܬ ߬ Ӭ߬֬߬֬ ڬ.
 

ܬ֬ݬѬ ԬѬݬ֬֬

Choose a photo from below to view a larger version and details. Ҭ֬ڬ ߬ڬ٬, Ҭ ެ֬ Ӭ֬ݬڬ֬߬߬ Ӭ֬ڬ լ֬Ѭݬ֬.

ҬѬ ҬԬ ܬ:

  • 'Tokelau' is Polynesian for 'North Wind'. 'ܬ֬ݬѬ "Ӭݬ֬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬڬ լݬ" ֬Ӭ֬߬ Ӭ֬֬ ".

  • According to archaeological evidence, the islands were settled about 1000 years ago. ԬݬѬ߬ Ѭ֬ݬԬڬ֬ܬڬ լѬ߬߬, Ӭ Ҭݬ ٬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ ڬެ֬߬ 1000 ݬ֬ ߬Ѭ٬Ѭ.

  • Tokelau has no harbors or ports nor does it have an airport.The best way for tourists and travelers to get to Tokelau is from Apia, Samoa, by ship, which runs every 2 weeks.. ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬֬ ߬ ڬެ֬֬ airport.The ݬڬ լݬ ڬ ֬֬Ӭ֬߬߬ڬܬ, Ҭ լҬѬ լ ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬ ڬ, Ѭެ, ߬ ܬѬҬݬ, ܬ լڬ Ѭ 2 ߬֬լ֬ݬ ..

  • Today, more Tokelauans live outside Tokelau than on the islands. ֬Ԭլ߬, ܬѬ جڬӬ ٬ ֬լ֬ݬѬެ ܬ֬ݬѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ֬ ߬ ӬѬ. About 6,800 live in New Zealand. 6800 جڬӬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ.

  • According to the Central Intelligence Agency's list of countries by GDP, Tokelau has the smallest economy of any country in the world, with an annual purchasing power of about US $1,000 (€674) per capita. ԬݬѬ߬ ڬܬ ֬߬Ѭݬ߬Ԭ Ѭ٬Ӭ֬լӬѬ֬ݬ߬Ԭ ѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ Ѭ ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬެ֬֬ ߬Ѭڬެ֬߬֬ ܬ߬ެڬܬ ݬҬ Ѭ߬ ެڬ, ԬլӬ ܬѬ֬ݬ߬ Ҭ߬ ܬݬ $ 1000 (€ 674) ߬ լ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ.

  • Most food and drink is shipped to the islands, as little can be grown on these coral atolls. ݬڬ߬Ӭ լܬ ڬѬ߬ڬ ߬Ѭڬܬ ѬӬݬ֬ ߬ Ӭ, Ѭ ج ެѬݬ ެج߬ ӬѬڬӬѬ ߬ ڬ ܬѬݬݬӬ Ѭݬݬ.

  • There is little native fauna on the atolls. ֬Ӭ֬ ߬֬Ҭݬ ެ֬߬ Ѭ߬ ߬ ѬݬݬѬ. Lizards are common. ֬ڬ Ӭݬ Ҭڬެ. Migratory seabirds visit Tokelau frequently. ڬԬڬڬ ڬ ֬ڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭ.

  • The geographic future of Tokelau depends on the height of the ocean. ֬ԬѬڬ֬ܬڬ Ҭլ֬Ԭ ܬ֬ݬѬ ٬ѬӬڬڬ Ӭ ܬ֬Ѭ. No significant land is more than two metres above high water of ordinary tides. ڬܬѬܬڬ ֬Ӭ֬߬߬ ٬֬ެݬ Ҭݬ֬ ֬ ߬ լӬ ެ֬ Ӭ Ӭܬ Ӭլ Ҭ߬ ڬݬڬӬ. This means Tokelau is particularly vulnerable to any possible sea level rises caused by global warming. ٬߬ѬѬ֬, ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬѬ Ҭ֬߬߬ ٬Ӭڬެ լݬ Ӭ٬ެج߬ Ӭ߬֬ ެ, լ߬ڬެѬ֬ ֬٬ݬѬ ԬݬҬѬݬ߬Ԭ ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ.

  • Ѭܬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ:

    ܬ߬߬ Ӭڬ
    Nukunonu warriors. ܬ߬߬ Ӭڬ߬.
    Image courtesy of Tokelau ٬ҬѬج֬߬ڬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ
    Liaison Office, Samoa. Ӭ٬, Ѭެ.

    Click here to see more photos Ѭجެڬ ٬լ֬, Ҭ Ӭڬլ֬ Ҭݬ ԬѬڬ

    History ڬ

    According to archaeological evidence, the islands were settled about 1000 years ago. ԬݬѬ߬ Ѭ֬ݬԬڬ֬ܬڬ լѬ߬߬, Ӭ Ҭݬ ٬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ ڬެ֬߬ 1000 ݬ֬ ߬Ѭ٬Ѭ. Several hundred years of oral history remain, showing a belief in Polynesian mythology and the worship of the god Tui Tokelau. ֬ܬݬܬ ֬ ݬ֬ ߬ ڬڬ Ѭ, Ӭڬլ֬֬ݬӬ֬ Ӭ֬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬ ެڬݬԬڬ ܬݬ ҬԬ ܬ֬ݬѬ.

    Tokelauan society was ruled by clans. ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ֬Ӭ ѬӬݬݬ ܬݬѬ߬. Each atoll was independent until the 18th century, when Fakaofo conquered Atafu and Nukunonu and united the three atolls. Ѭجլ Ѭݬ Ӭݬ֬ ߬֬٬ѬӬڬڬެ լ 18-Ԭ Ӭ֬ܬ, ܬԬլ ѬܬѬ ٬ѬӬ֬ӬѬ Ѭ ܬ߬߬ Ҭ֬լڬ߬ڬݬ ֬ Ѭݬݬ. Inhabitants lived a subsistence lifestyle, relying on fish and coconuts for sustenance. ڬ֬ݬ جڬݬ ֬ӬӬѬ߬ڬ جڬ٬߬, ڬѬ ߬ Ҭ ܬܬ ֬ӬӬѬ߬ڬ.

    Vice-Admiral John Byron of England found Atafu on his 1765 voyage but saw no signs of inhabitants. ڬ-ѬլެڬѬ ج Ѭ۬ ߬Ԭݬڬ ߬Ѭݬ Ѭ ֬Ԭ ֬۬ 1765, ߬ ߬ Ӭڬլڬ ڬ٬߬Ѭܬ جڬ֬ݬ֬. In 1791, Captain Edward Edwards found Nukunonu while searching for mutineers from the HMS Bounty. 1791 Ԭլ ܬѬڬѬ լӬѬ լӬѬլ ߬Ѭݬ ܬ߬߬ ڬܬѬ ެ֬ج߬ڬܬ ڬ HMS Ѭ߬. The US whaling ship General Jackson reached the island of Fakaofo in 1835. ڬҬ۬߬ ܬѬҬݬ Ԭ֬߬֬Ѭݬ ج֬ܬ߬ լڬԬݬ Ӭ ѬܬѬ 1835 Ԭլ.

    Catholic and Protestant missionaries from Samoa sailed to the islands in the mid-1800's, the former converting most inhabitants of Nukunonu and the latter converting most of the inhabitants of Atafu. Ѭݬڬ֬ܬڬ ֬Ѭ߬ܬڬ ެڬڬ߬֬ ڬ Ѭެ ݬ ߬ Ӭ ֬֬լڬ߬ 1800- ҬӬڬ ֬ҬѬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ Ҭݬڬ߬Ӭ جڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ߬߬ ݬ֬լ߬֬Ԭ ֬ҬѬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ Ҭݬڬ߬Ӭ جڬ֬ݬ֬ Ѭ.

    Both groups of missionaries worked on Fakaofo, resulting in a mix of Catholics and Protestants on this atoll. Ҭ Ԭ ެڬڬ߬֬, ѬҬѬݬ ߬ ѬܬѬ, ֬٬ݬѬ ֬Ԭ ެ֬ ܬѬݬڬܬ ֬Ѭ߬ ߬ Ѭݬݬ.

     

    Ѭ Ѭݬ
    Atafu village. Image courtesy Ѭ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬߬ ߬ܬ. ٬ҬѬج֬߬ڬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬߬
    of Tokelau Liaison Office, Samoa ܬ֬ݬѬ լ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ Ӭ٬, Ѭެ

    Click here to see more photos Ѭجެڬ ٬լ֬, Ҭ Ӭڬլ֬ Ҭݬ ԬѬڬ

    In 1889, the islands were claimed by Britain. 1889 Ԭլ Ӭ Ҭݬ ڬѬ߬ڬ. They became part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (Kiribati and Tuvalu) in 1916, which was then renamed the Union Group. ߬ Ӭݬ Ѭ Ӭ ڬݬҬ֬ ݬݬڬ (ڬڬҬѬ ӬѬݬ), 1916 Ԭլ, ܬ ٬Ѭ֬ Ҭ ֬֬ڬެ֬߬ӬѬ Ԭ.

    Though Tokelauans are Polynesian, some have European names, a result of visits by whalers and European explorers in the late 19th century. ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭݬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬, ߬֬ܬ ֬Ӭ֬۬ܬڬ ڬެ֬߬, ֬٬ݬѬ ֬֬߬ڬ ܬڬҬ֬ ֬Ӭ֬۬ܬڬ ڬݬ֬լӬѬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ߬ 19 Ӭ֬ܬ.

    Government & Politics ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ ݬڬڬܬ

    In 1925, the islands came under the administration of New Zealand. 1925 Ԭլ Ӭ ֬֬ݬ ѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ. They became a New Zealand territory in 1948. ߬ Ѭݬ ߬ ֬ڬڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ 1948 Ԭլ. Today, more Tokelauans live outside Tokelau than on the islands. ֬Ԭլ߬, ܬѬ جڬӬ ٬ ֬լ֬ݬѬެ ܬ֬ݬѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ֬ ߬ ӬѬ. About 6,800 live in New Zealand. 6800 جڬӬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ.

    As a territory, Tokelau has had an Administrator appointed by the New Zealand Minister for Foreign Affairs; however, in 2004, the Administrator delegated his powers to the three Village Councils. Ѭ ֬ڬڬ, ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭݬ Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬ, ߬Ѭ٬߬ѬѬ֬ެ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ެڬ߬ڬ ڬ߬Ѭ߬߬ լ֬, լ߬Ѭܬ 2004 Ԭլ, լެڬ߬ڬѬ լ֬ݬ֬ԬڬӬѬ Ӭ ݬ߬ެڬ ֬ ֬ݬܬڬ Ӭ֬Ѭ.

     

    ߬ լݬ ԬݬӬѬ߬ڬ ڬҬ ߬ Ѭ
    The ballot box arrives on the atoll of Atafu - photo courtesy of Richard Simpsons ߬ լݬ ԬݬӬѬ߬ڬ ڬҬ ߬ Ѭݬݬ Ѭ - ݬҬ֬٬߬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬߬ ڬѬ ڬެ߬

    Click here to see more Tokelau photos Ѭجެڬ ٬լ֬, Ҭ Ӭڬլ֬ Ҭݬ ԬѬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ

    Since 1996, Tokelau has also had a legislative body, called the General Fono council, which deals with national issues. 1996 Ԭլ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭܬج ٬Ѭܬ߬լѬ֬ݬ߬Ԭ ԬѬ߬, ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ֬ެԬ Ӭ֬ Ҭڬ ߬, ܬ ٬Ѭ߬ڬެѬ֬ ߬Ѭڬ߬Ѭݬ߬ެ Ҭݬ֬ެѬެ.

    In addition, every three years, a Village Head is elected. ެ Ԭ, ܬѬجլ Ԭլ, ԬݬѬӬ ֬ݬ ߬ Ҭլ֬ ڬ٬ҬѬ. Daily activities in the villages are managed by elected mayors. Ӭ֬լ߬֬Ӭ߬Ѭ լ֬֬ݬ߬ լ֬֬Ӭ߬, ܬ ѬӬݬ ڬ٬ҬѬ߬߬ ެ. New Zealand statutory laws do not apply to Tokelau except when they are expressly extended to the territory. ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ߬ެѬڬӬ߬ Ѭܬ ߬ ѬѬ߬ ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬެ ݬѬ֬, ܬԬլ ߬ ެ ѬѬ߬ڬ ߬ ֬ڬڬ Ѭ߬.

    New Zealand contributes development assistance to Tokelau, which amounts to most of the territory's budget. ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ҬӬ֬ ެ ֬ݬ Ѭ٬Ӭڬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬ ѬӬݬ֬ Ҭݬ Ѭ Ҭլج֬ ֬ڬڬ.

    In 2006, and 2007, Tokelauans held referenda to decide whether to move to self government in free association with New Zealand. 2006 2007, ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ֬լ֬߬ ֬֬֬߬լެ, Ҭ ֬ڬ, ݬ֬լ֬ ݬ ֬֬۬ ߬ ѬެѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ ѬެܬѬ ӬҬլ߬ ѬڬѬڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ֬. In both referenda, the citizens failed to achieve the required two thirds majority. Ҭڬ ֬֬֬߬լެѬ, ԬѬجլѬ߬, ߬ լѬݬ լڬ ֬Ҭ֬ެԬ Ҭݬڬ߬Ӭ լӬ ֬ Ԭݬ.

    Tokelau is a full or associate member of many international organizations, including South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme, the Forum Fisheries Agency, the World Health Organization, and UN Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭݬ֬ ݬ߬ѬӬ߬ ڬݬ ѬڬڬӬѬ߬߬ ݬ֬߬ ެ߬Ԭڬ ެ֬جլ߬Ѭլ߬ ԬѬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ, ڬݬ ج߬-ڬܬ֬Ѭ߬ܬѬ ֬Ԭڬ߬Ѭݬ߬Ѭ ܬݬԬڬ֬ܬѬ ԬѬެެ Ԭ֬߬Ӭ ҬݬӬӬ ެ ֬ެڬ߬ ԬѬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ ٬լѬӬѬ߬֬߬ڬ ҬѬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ, ߬Ѭܬ ܬݬ ().



    Polynesian Culture ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬ ܬݬ

    Tokelau culture is Polynesian culture. ܬ֬ݬѬ ܬݬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬ ܬݬ. Sharing of resources according to need and respect for elders are integral characteristics of this culture. Ӭެ֬߬ ڬݬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ ֬ Ӭ֬Ӭڬ ֬Ҭ߬ެ ӬѬج֬߬ڬ Ѭڬ Ӭݬ ߬֬֬ެݬ֬ެެ ѬѬܬ֬ڬڬܬѬެ ܬݬ. Age typically determines the level of employment; the older Tokelauans holding managerial positions. ٬Ѭ Ҭ߬ ֬լ֬ݬ֬ Ӭ֬߬ ٬Ѭ߬; Ӭ٬ݬެ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ٬Ѭ߬ڬެѬڬ ܬӬլڬ լݬج߬.

     

    Nukunomu Ѭ߬
    Fiafia night (a traditional dance) on Nukunonu Atoll. Image courtesy of Tokelau Liaison Office, Samoa. Fiafia ߬ (Ѭլڬڬ߬߬ Ѭ߬֬) ߬ ܬ߬߬ Atoll. ٬ҬѬج֬߬ڬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ٬, Ѭެ.

    Click here to see more Tokelau photos Ѭجެڬ ٬լ֬, Ҭ Ӭڬլ֬ Ҭݬ ԬѬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ

    The division of labor has men involved mostly in fishing, farming, and construction and women in maintaining the villages. Ѭ٬լ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ լ ެجڬ, ٬Ѭ߬ڬެѬڬ ߬Ӭ߬ ҬݬӬӬ, ֬ݬܬ ٬۬Ӭ, ڬ֬ݬӬ ج֬߬ڬ Ѭ߬֬߬ڬ լ֬֬Ӭ߬. However, many Tokelauans are employed in public service, and such divisions of labor are blurred in these occupations. ֬ ߬ ެ֬߬֬, ެ߬Ԭڬ جڬ֬ݬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ٬Ѭ߬ ߬ ԬլѬӬ֬߬߬ ݬجҬ, Ѭܬڬ Ѭ٬լ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ լ Ѭ٬ެ ڬ ֬ڬ.

    Most of the land is managed by kin groups. ݬѬ Ѭ ٬֬ެݬ ߬Ѭլڬ Ӭ֬լ֬߬ڬ լӬ֬߬߬ Ԭ. Many Tokelauans are members of more than one kin group. ߬Ԭڬ جڬ֬ݬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭݬ ݬ֬߬Ѭެ Ҭݬ֬ ֬ լ߬ Ԭ լӬ֬߬߬ڬܬ. Essentially all Tokelauans have rights to land and to a share of the produce of the land. Ѭܬڬ֬ܬ Ӭ جڬ֬ݬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭ ߬ ٬֬ެݬ ߬ լݬ լܬ ٬֬ެݬ. Although land can be transferred to other Tokelauans, it cannot be transferred to foreigners. ٬֬ެݬ ެج֬ Ҭ ֬֬լѬ߬ լԬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ߬ ެԬ Ҭ ֬֬լѬ߬ ڬ߬Ѭ߬Ѭ.

    Each atoll consists of one village. Ѭجլ Ѭݬ ڬ ڬ լ߬ լ֬֬Ӭ߬. The villages have a small-town, rural character, although, as a result of the small amount of inhabitable land, they are densely populated. ֬֬Ӭ֬߬ ެѬݬ Ԭլܬڬ, ֬ݬܬڬ ѬѬܬ֬, , ܬѬ ֬٬ݬѬ ߬֬ҬݬԬ ܬݬڬ֬Ӭ جڬݬ ٬֬ެݬ, ߬ Ԭ ٬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬.

    All the villages hold regular inter-island sports, dancing, and fishing competitions. լ֬֬Ӭ߬ Ӭլڬ ֬Ԭݬ߬ ެ֬جլ ӬѬެ, Ѭ߬, ֬Ӭ߬ӬѬ߬ڬ ҬݬӬӬ.

    There is one school on each atoll, which provides education for pre-schoolers and kids years 1 through 10. ֬Ӭ֬ լ߬ ܬݬ ߬ ܬѬجլ Ѭݬݬ, ܬѬ Ҭ֬֬ڬӬѬ֬ ҬѬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ լݬ լܬݬ߬ڬܬ լ֬֬ 1 Ԭլ լ 10. There is one University extension, the University of the South Pacific, on Atafu. ֬Ӭ֬ լڬ ߬ڬӬ֬ڬ֬ Ѭڬ֬߬ڬ, ߬ڬӬ֬ڬ֬ ج߬ Ѭ ڬԬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬, ߬ Ѭ. The population dresses conservatively and strictly observes the Christian Sabbath. Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ ݬѬ ܬ߬֬ӬѬڬӬ߬ Ԭ ҬݬլѬ֬ ڬڬѬ߬ܬڬ ҬҬ. Atafu is the most conservative island. Ѭ Ӭݬ֬ ߬ѬڬҬݬ֬ ܬ߬֬ӬѬڬӬ߬ Ӭ. There, alcohol is rationed. Ѭ, ѬݬܬԬݬ ܬѬܬѬ.

     

    Ѭլڬڬ߬߬ ֬ެ֬ݬ ݬ֬֬߬߬
    Tokelau traditional woven handicrafts ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭլڬڬ߬߬ ֬ެ֬֬ ݬ֬֬߬߬

    Traditional foods include fish, sweet potato, taro root, breadfruit, pork, poultry, and coconuts. Ѭլڬڬ߬߬ լܬ ڬѬ߬ڬ Ӭլڬ Ҭ, ݬѬլܬڬ ܬѬ֬ݬ, Ѭ ܬ֬߬, ݬլ ݬ֬Ҭ߬Ԭ լ֬֬Ӭ, Ӭڬ߬ڬ߬, ڬ ܬܬӬ ֬. A fermented drink, Kaleva, is made from coconut milk. ڬݬެݬ߬Ԭ ߬Ѭڬܬ, Ѭݬ֬Ӭ, լ֬ݬѬ ڬ ܬܬӬԬ ެݬܬ. Imported foods are available in the village cooperative stores. ެ լܬ ڬѬ߬ڬ ڬެ֬ լ֬֬Ӭ߬ ܬ֬ѬڬӬ.

    Homes historically were made of local timber with thatch rooves; however, in the 1970's, imported wood and concrete were used to construct sturdier homes. ެ ڬڬ֬ܬ Ҭݬ լ֬ݬѬ߬ ڬ ެ֬߬ լ֬Ӭ֬ڬ߬ ݬެ֬߬߬Ѭ ѬӬ, լ߬Ѭܬ 1970- Ԭլ, ڬެڬӬѬ߬߬ լ֬֬Ӭ Ҭ֬߬ Ҭݬ ֬߬ ܬ֬ܬڬ լެ. Still, many residences are one-room dwellings with carpets consisting of mats made with leaves, sleeping mats, various chairs, tables, and other furnishings. ֬ ߬ ެ֬߬֬, ެ߬Ԭڬ ֬٬ڬլ֬߬ڬ լ߬ܬެ߬Ѭ߬ جڬݬڬ ܬӬѬެ, ڬ ڬ ެѬ ݬڬެ, ެѬѬ, Ѭ٬ݬڬ߬ ݬ, ݬ լԬڬ ڬ߬Ѭլݬ֬ج߬. Cook houses are typically separate. ܬ լެ, ܬѬ ѬӬڬݬ, լ֬ݬ߬. Satellite TV and internet are recent arrivals to Tokelau. ߬ڬܬӬ ڬ߬֬߬֬ ߬֬լѬӬ߬ ڬҬӬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ.

     

     Ѭܬ Ԭ
    Listen to the Te Vaka Band! ݬѬ Ѭܬ Band!

    Tokelauans produce fine woven handicrafts, such as mats, bags, hats, and fans. ܬ֬ݬѬ ݬ֬߬ڬ ߬ܬԬ ݬ֬֬߬߬ ֬ެ֬֬, Ѭܬڬ ܬѬ ܬӬڬܬ, ެܬ, ԬݬӬ߬ Ҭ, Ҭݬ֬ݬڬܬ. Tokelau stamps and coins are also sold as collectibles. ܬ֬ݬѬ ެѬܬ ެ߬֬ լѬ Ѭܬج ܬѬ֬Ӭ ֬լެ֬ ܬݬݬ֬ܬڬ߬ڬӬѬ߬ڬ.

    Traditional Tokelauan music starts with choral elements and adds percussion with log drums, wooden boxes, and biscuit tins. Ѭլڬڬ߬߬Ѭ ެ٬ܬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬Ѭڬ߬Ѭ֬ Ӭެ ݬ֬ެ֬߬ լҬѬӬݬ֬, ֬ܬڬ ݬ ҬѬѬҬѬ߬, լ֬֬Ӭ߬߬ ڬܬ, ҬѬ߬ܬ ֬֬߬.

    A Tokelauan music group, Te Vaka ('the Canoe') brings Tokelauan music and dance to international destinations. ٬ܬ Ԭ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭܬ ('߬ ҬѬ۬լѬܬѬ ܬѬ߬') ڬӬլڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ެ٬ܬ Ѭ߬ ެ֬جլ߬Ѭլ߬ ߬ѬѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ.

    Tokelau celebrates both religious and secular holidays with feasts, athletic competitions, and parades. ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭ٬լ߬֬ ܬѬ ֬ݬڬԬڬ٬߬, Ѭ Ӭ֬ܬڬ Ѭ٬լ߬ڬܬ Ѭ٬լ߬ڬܬѬެ, ڬӬ߬ ֬Ӭ߬ӬѬ߬ڬ ѬѬլ.

    In addition to celebrating New Zealand public holidays, such as Waitangi Day (the day British sovereignty was established over New Zealand, February 6th), and traditional Christian holidays. լݬ߬֬߬ڬ Ѭ٬լ߬ӬѬ߬ڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ Ѭ٬լ߬ڬ߬ լ߬, Ѭܬڬ ܬѬ ֬߬ Ѭ۬Ѭ߬Ԭ (߬ ݬ֬լڬ լ֬߬ ҬڬѬ߬ܬڬ Ӭ֬֬߬ڬ֬ Ҭݬ ެڬӬѬ߬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ, 6 ֬ӬѬݬ), Ѭܬج Ѭլڬڬ߬߬ ڬڬѬ߬ܬڬ Ѭ٬լ߬ڬܬ. Tokelau island councils designate two village holidays each year. Ӭ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ ߬Ѭ٬߬Ѭڬ լӬ լ֬֬Ӭ߬ Ѭ٬լ߬ڬܬ ܬѬجլ Ԭ.
     



    Travel & Tourism: ֬֬Ӭڬ ڬ٬:

    There is little tourism on the atolls of Tokelau. ֬Ӭ֬ ެѬݬ ڬ٬ެ ߬ Ѭݬݬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. Thus there are few tourist attractions... Ѭܬڬ ҬѬ٬ ߬֬ܬݬܬ ڬڬ֬ܬڬ լڬެ֬Ѭ֬ݬ߬֬ ... which means that a visit to Tokelau affords a quiet getaway, far off the beaten path. ٬߬ѬѬ֬, Ӭڬ٬ڬ ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ֬֬ڬӬѬ֬ ڬ Ҭ֬جڬ, ӬլѬݬ ֬߬߬ ֬.

    What to Do & See լ֬ݬѬ ެ֬

    The main recreational activities are swimming and snorkeling in the lagoons and coral reefs. ߬Ӭ߬ Ѭ٬Ӭݬ֬ܬѬ֬ݬ߬ ެ֬ڬڬ ܬѬ߬ڬ լӬլ߬Ԭ ݬѬӬѬ߬ڬ ݬѬԬ߬Ѭ ܬѬݬݬӬ ڬ. During a special event, such as a holiday or pageant, tourists may be treated to performances such as traditional singing and dancing. Ӭ֬ެ ֬ڬѬݬ߬Ԭ ެ֬ڬڬ, Ѭܬڬ, ܬѬ Ѭ٬լ߬ڬ ڬݬ ج֬Ӭ, ڬ ެԬ ѬެѬڬӬѬ ֬ܬѬܬݬ, Ѭܬڬ ܬѬ Ѭլڬڬ߬߬ ֬߬ Ѭ߬.

     

    -Fa Resort
    Tokelau's only Resort is the Fale Fa ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭݬ֬ ֬լڬ߬Ӭ֬߬߬ Resort -Fa
    Image courtesy of Lui Pedro, Tokelau ٬ҬѬج֬߬ڬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬߬ -֬լ, ܬ֬ݬѬ

    Click here to see more photos Ѭجެڬ ٬լ֬, Ҭ Ӭڬլ֬ Ҭݬ ԬѬڬ

    Where to Stay լ Ѭ߬Ӭڬ

    There is one hotel in Tokelau, the Luanaliki. ֬Ӭ֬ լڬ ֬ݬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, Luanaliki. This hotel is located on Nukunonu. ֬ݬ ߬Ѭլڬ ߬ ܬ߬߬. There is one resort, Fale Fa, also on Nukunonu. ֬Ӭ֬ լڬ ܬ, -Fa, Ѭܬج ߬ ܬ߬߬. There is also a guest house on Atafu, the Feliti Lopa. ֬Ӭ֬ Ѭܬج Ԭ֬Ӭ լ ߬ Ѭ, Feliti .
     

    Getting There & Away ѬѬݬ Ѭ Away

    The best way for tourists and travelers to get to Tokelau is from Apia, Samoa, by ship. ڬ լݬ ڬ ֬֬Ӭ֬߬߬ڬܬ լҬѬ լ ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬ ڬ, Ѭެ, ߬ ܬѬҬݬ.

    The government-run MV Tokelau provides passenger and cargo services to and from Apia every two weeks. Ӭ֬լ֬߬ڬ ԬլѬӬ . ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ֬֬ڬӬѬ֬ ѬѬجڬܬڬ Ԭ٬Ӭ ֬֬Ӭ٬ܬ ڬ ڬ, ܬѬجլ լӬ ߬֬լ֬ݬ. The trip takes about 24-36 hours each way, and the ship makes the round trip in five days. ֬٬լܬ ٬Ѭ߬ڬެѬ֬ ܬݬ 24-36 Ѭ լ߬ ߬, լ߬ Ӭ֬Ѭ֬ ֬٬լܬ Ҭ ܬ߬ ֬֬߬ڬ լ߬֬. Passengers must bring their own mattresses to sleep on. ѬѬجڬ լݬج߬ ڬ߬֬ Ӭ ެѬѬѬެ. Food is provided, and there is one bathroom for the passengers. ڬѬ߬ڬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬, ֬ լ߬ ӬѬ߬߬Ѭ ܬެ߬Ѭ լݬ ѬѬجڬ.

    Since there is no harbor in Tokelau, launches are used to embark and disembark. ܬݬܬ ߬ ֬Ӭ֬ ԬѬӬѬ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬѬ֬ ڬݬ٬ լݬ ڬ٬Ӭլڬ Ѭլܬ ӬѬլܬ. The ship's schedule can be found here . լ߬ ѬڬѬ߬ڬ ެج߬ ߬Ѭ۬ ٬լ֬ .

    There is also a larger ship that makes the trip once a month. ֬Ӭ֬ Ѭܬج Ҭݬ ܬѬҬݬ, ܬ լ֬ݬѬ֬ ֬٬լܬ Ѭ ެ֬. The only other ways to get to Tokelau are by private boat or private helicopter. ݬܬ լԬڬ Ҭ լҬѬ լ ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬ Ѭ߬ ܬѬ֬ ڬݬ Ѭ߬Ԭ Ӭ֬ݬ֬.

    Getting Around ެڬѬ

    The distances around the atolls are short, so one can travel on foot within an atoll. Ѭ߬ڬ Ӭܬ Ѭݬݬ ܬܬڬ, Ѭ ެج߬ ֬֬ӬӬѬ ֬ܬ Ѭݬݬ. Tourists can travel between atolls on a dinghy or traditional outrigger canoe. ڬ ެԬ ֬֬ӬӬѬ ެ֬جլ Ѭݬݬ ߬ ݬլܬ ڬݬ Ѭլڬڬ߬߬ Ӭ߬߬ ܬѬ߬.
    Ҭ֬߬߬:

    - Language: Tokelauan, English - ٬: ܬ֬ݬѬ, Ѭ߬Ԭݬڬ۬ܬڬ

    - Population: Approx. - Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ: ڬҬ. 1450 (2006 census) 1450 (2006 ֬֬ڬ)

    - Altitude: 3- 5 m above sea level - : 3 - 5 ߬Ѭ Ӭ߬֬ ެ

    - Latitude/ Longitude: - ڬ / լݬԬ:
    Atafu: 8°33′6″S,172°30′3″W Ѭ: 8 ° 33'6 "S, 172 ° 30'3" W
    Nukunonu: 9°10′6″S,171°48′35″W ܬ߬߬ 9 ° 10'6 "S, 171 ° 48'35" W
    Fakaofo: 9°21′55″S, 171°12′54″W ѬܬѬ 9 ° 21'55 "S, 171 ° 12'54" W

    - Total area: 10.8 sq. km - ҬѬ ݬѬլ: 10,8 ܬ
    Atafu: 3.5 sq. km Ѭ: 3,5 ܬ
    Fakaofo: 4.0 sq. km ѬܬѬ: 4,0 ܬ
    Nukunono: 4.7 sq. km Nukunono: 4,7 ܬ

    - Calling code: +690 - ֬ݬ֬߬߬ ܬ: +690

    - Currency: New Zealand dollar - Ѭݬ: ߬Ӭ٬֬ݬѬ߬լܬڬ լݬݬѬ

    - Time Zone: UTC -10 - ѬӬ : UTC -10

    - Climate: Tropical. - ݬڬެѬ: ڬ֬ܬڬ.

    - Average temperature: 28 deg C - ֬լ߬ ֬ެ֬Ѭ: 28 °

ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ ֬Ԭڬ߬ ܬӬլӬ

> Tokelau government Website > ܬ֬ݬѬ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ Ѭ۬

> New Zealand government info on Tokelau > ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ ߬ެѬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ

> South Pacific tourism news > ج߬ Ѭ ڬԬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬ ߬Ӭ ڬ٬ެ

> Guide to Tokelau > ܬӬլӬ ܬ֬ݬѬ
(David Stanley) (Ӭڬ Stanley)
 

Ӭ٬Ѭ߬߬ ݬ֬٬߬ ݬܬ

> Tokelau government legislative information > ܬ֬ݬѬ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ ѬӬӬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ

> Tokelau Internet Project > ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬ߬֬߬֬-֬ܬ

> New Zealand Encyclopedia information on Tokelau > ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ߬ڬܬݬ֬լڬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ

> Wikipedia about Tokelau > ڬܬڬ֬լڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ

 

ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬Ӭլڬ֬ݬ
  One of the most complete travel guides of Tokelau, a group of three atolls about half way between Hawaii to New Zealand. լڬ ڬ Ѭެ ݬ߬ ֬Ӭլڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, Ԭ ڬ ֬ Ѭݬݬ, ڬެ֬߬ ߬ ݬ ެ֬جլ ѬӬѬ۬ެ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ. This guide contains very useful information, for travelers, that will help them have a pleasant stay there. ܬӬլӬ լ֬جڬ ֬߬ ݬ֬٬߬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ լݬ ֬֬Ӭ֬߬߬ڬܬ, ܬ ެԬ ڬ ڬ߬Ԭ ֬ҬӬѬ߬ڬ Ѭ.
Tokelau Travel Info ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬֬Ӭڬ ߬
  By reading the information included in this guide, you will certainly acquire some knowledge regarding the history and main tourist attractions of Tokelau, known in the past as the Union Islands. ڬѬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ, լ֬جѬ ܬӬլӬ, Ӭ, Ҭ֬٬ݬӬ߬, ڬҬ֬Ѭ ߬֬ܬ ٬߬Ѭ߬ڬ ڬڬ ߬Ӭ߬ ڬڬ֬ܬڬ լڬެ֬Ѭ֬ݬ߬֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ڬ٬Ӭ֬߬ ݬ ܬѬ Ӭ.
Tokelau Guide ܬӬլӬ ܬ֬ݬѬ
  This guide provides some handy details and facts connected with the geographical location and places of interest located in Tokelau. Ѭ߬߬ ܬӬլӬ լ֬جڬ ߬֬ܬ ݬ֬٬߬ լѬ߬߬ Ѭܬ, Ӭ٬Ѭ߬߬ Ԭ֬ԬѬڬ֬ܬڬ ݬج֬߬ڬ֬ լڬެ֬Ѭ֬ݬ߬ ߬Ѭլ ܬ֬ݬѬ.
Tokelau Information ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ
  Here you will be able to study a captivating information regarding the land and history of Tokelau, a group of three atolls about half way between Hawaii to New Zealand. լ֬ Ӭ ެج֬ ڬ٬ڬ Ӭݬ֬ܬѬ֬ݬ߬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ ٬֬ެݬ ڬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, Ԭ ڬ ֬ Ѭݬݬ, ڬެ֬߬ ߬ ݬ ެ֬جլ ѬӬѬ۬ެ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ.
Tokelau Concise Info ܬ֬ݬѬ ܬѬܬѬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ
  In this short travel guide you will discover a concise information about Tokelau`s islands. ܬܬڬ ڬڬ֬ܬڬ Ӭ ߬Ѭ۬լ֬ ܬѬܬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ `Ӭ.

ܬ֬ݬѬ

Tokelau ܬ֬ݬѬ
Flag ݬѬ Coat of arms ֬
Motto : "Tokelau mo te Atua" ֬Ӭڬ : "ܬ֬ݬѬ ެ "    ( Tokelauan ) ( ܬ֬ݬѬ )
"Tokelau for the Almighty" "ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬ެԬڬ"
 
Capital ѬڬѬ None; each atoll has its own administrative centre. ڬܬ, ܬѬجլ Ѭݬ ڬެ֬֬ Ӭ ҬӬ֬߬߬ Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬڬӬ߬ ֬߬.
Official language(s)ڬڬѬݬ߬ ٬ () Tokelauan[ 1 ] , Englishܬ֬ݬѬ[1] , Ѭ߬Ԭݬڬ۬ܬڬ
Demonym߬߬ڬ Tokelauan ܬ֬ݬѬ
GovernmentѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ Constitutional monarchy߬ڬڬ߬߬Ѭ ެ߬Ѭڬ
- - Head of StateݬѬӬ ԬլѬӬ Queen Elizabeth IIݬ֬Ӭ ݬڬ٬ѬӬ֬ II
- - Administratorլެڬ߬ڬѬ John Allen (acting) (2009-) ج ݬݬ֬ (..) (2009 -)
- - Head of GovernmentݬѬӬ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ Kuresa Nasau (February 2010-) ֬ ѬѬ (֬ӬѬݬ 2010 -)
New Zealand territory ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ֬ڬڬ
- - Tokelau Act Ѭܬ ܬ֬ݬѬ 1948 1948
AreaݬѬլ
- - Total Ҭڬ 10 km 2 ( 228th ) 10 ܬ 2 ( 228- )
5
sq mi 5 ܬӬѬլѬ߬ ެڬݬ
- - Water (%)լ (%) negligible ߬֬٬߬Ѭڬ֬ݬ߬
PopulationѬ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ
- - July 2009 estimate ݬ 2009 ֬߬ܬ 1,416 ( 220th ) 1416 ( 220- )
- - 2006 census ֬֬ڬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ 2006 Ԭլ 1,466 1 1466 1
- - Densityݬ߬ 115/km 2 ( 86th ) 115/km 2 ( 86 )
298/sq mi 298/sq ެ
GDP ( PPP ) ( PPP ) 1993 estimate ֬߬ܬѬ 1993 Ԭլ
- - Total Ҭڬ $1.5 million ( 227th ) 1,5 ެݬ. լݬ. ( 227 )
- - Per capita լ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ $1,035 ( not ranked ) $ 1035 ( ߬ ڬެ֬֬ ֬۬ڬ߬Ԭ )
CurrencyѬݬ New Zealand dollar ( NZD ) Ӭ٬֬ݬѬ߬լܬڬ լݬݬѬ ( NZD )
Time zoneѬӬ ( UTC -10) ( UTC -10)
Drives on theڬܬ ߬ left ݬ֬Ӭ
Internet TLD߬֬߬֬ TLD .tk.
Calling code֬ݬ֬߬߬ ܬ 690 690
Some data from the World Factbook (2004). ֬ܬ լѬ߬߬ ڬ World Factbook (2004).
1.
Tuhiga Igoa o te 2006 - 2006 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings . 1. Tuhiga Igoa 2006 - 2006 ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬֬ڬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ جڬݬڬ߬Ԭ ߬լ . The Census population figure of 1,466 includes 392 usual residents of Tokelau who were absent on census night. ڬݬ֬߬߬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ ֬֬ڬ 1466 ӬܬݬѬ֬ ֬Ҭ 392 Ҭ߬ جڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬ Ӭ ߬ ެެ֬߬ ֬֬ڬ.
Nukunonu Lagoon in Tokelau ܬ߬߬ ѬԬ ܬ֬ݬѬ

Tokelau (pronounced /ˈtoʊkəlaʊ/ ) is a territory of New Zealand that consists of three tropical coral atolls with a combined land area of 10 km 2 and a population of approximately 1,400 in the South Pacific Ocean . ܬ֬ݬѬ (ڬ٬߬ڬ / toʊkəlaʊ / ) Ӭݬ֬ ֬ڬڬ֬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ , ܬѬ ڬ ڬ ֬ ڬ֬ܬڬ ܬѬݬݬӬ Ѭݬݬ , ҬѬ ݬѬլ ѬӬݬ֬ 10 ܬ 2 ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ֬ ܬݬ 1400 ج߬ Ѭ ڬԬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬ . The atolls lie north of the Samoas , east of Tuvalu , south of the Phoenix Islands , southwest of the more distant Line Islands (both islands groups belonging to Kiribati ) and northwest of the Cook Islands . ݬݬ ݬ֬جѬ ֬Ӭ֬ Samoas , Ӭܬ ӬѬݬ , Ԭ Ӭ ֬߬ڬܬ , Ԭ-٬ѬѬլ Ҭݬ֬ լѬݬ֬ܬڬ Ӭ Ѭ۬ (Ҭ Ӭ ԬѬެ, ڬ߬Ѭլݬ֬جѬڬެ ڬڬҬѬ ) ֬Ӭ֬-٬ѬѬլ Ӭ ܬ . The United NationsGeneral Assembly designated Tokelau a Non-Self-Governing Territory . [ 2 ] Until 1976 the official name was Tokelau Islands . ԬѬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ Ҭ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ Ѭڬ֬߬֬Ѭݬ߬Ѭ ѬެҬݬ֬ ߬Ѭ٬߬Ѭ֬߬߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬֬ѬެѬӬݬѬ ֬ڬڬ . [2] 1976 Ԭլ ڬڬѬݬ߬ ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ. Tokelau is sometimes referred to by Westerners by the older, colonial name of The Union Islands . ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬ߬Ԭլ ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ ߬ ѬѬլ Ѭ, ܬݬ߬ڬѬݬ߬ ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ ٬ Ӭ.

ڬެݬԬڬ ݬ֬լӬڬ ڬݬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ

The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning "north wind". Ѭ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬڬ ݬӬ, ٬߬ѬѬ֬ "֬Ӭ֬߬ Ӭ֬֬". The islands were officially named the Union Islands and Union Group at unknown times. Tokelau Islands was adopted in 1946, which was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976. Ӭ Ҭݬ ڬڬѬݬ߬ ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ ٬ Ӭ Union Group ߬֬ڬ٬Ӭ֬߬ Ѭ. Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ ڬ߬ 1946 Ԭլ, ܬ Ҭ ٬Ѭܬݬ֬ ܬ߬Ѭܬ ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ 9 լ֬ܬѬҬ 1976.

The change in usage between Tokelau Islands and Tokelau marks a slight shift in emphasis, with consequences in regional diplomacy, in that the term Tokelau Islands clearly and substantially refers to a geographical expression, that is, a range of islands, whatever else it may connote. ٬ެ֬߬֬߬ڬ ڬݬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ ެ֬جլ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ٬߬Ѭެ֬߬֬ Ҭ ߬֬Ҭݬ ެ֬֬߬ڬ Ѭܬ֬߬ ݬ֬լӬڬެ, ֬Ԭڬ߬Ѭݬ߬ լڬݬެѬڬ, , ֬ެڬ Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬ܬ ٬߬Ѭڬ֬ݬ߬ ֬֬߬ ߬ڬ Ԭ֬ԬѬڬ֬ܬڬ ֬ެڬ, ֬ ֬ݬ Ӭ, Ӭ Ѭݬ߬ ެج֬ ٬߬ѬѬ . Thus it is not necessarily controversial to refer to a range of islands by one name, even though politically they may come under two jurisdictions. ߬ Ҭ٬Ѭ֬ݬ߬ ߬ ݬѬ ߬ Ӭ լ߬ڬ ڬެ֬߬֬, ݬڬڬ֬ܬ ߬ ެԬ լѬլѬ լӬ ڬլڬܬڬ. Whereas Tokelau can be taken to refer more immediately to some concept of nationhood, arguably infusing increased meaning to the draft 2006 independence constitution of Tokelau which, controversially or not, defines Swains Island , currently part of American Samoa , as part of the national territory. Ӭ֬ެ ܬѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ެԬ Ҭ ڬ߬ լݬ Ҭ٬߬Ѭ֬߬ڬ Ҭݬ֬ ߬֬֬լӬ֬߬߬ ֬լ֬ݬ֬߬߬ ܬ߬֬ڬ ԬլѬӬ֬߬߬, Ӭ֬߬, ӬݬڬӬѬ Ӭ֬ݬڬڬ ٬߬Ѭ֬߬ڬ ֬ܬ ܬ߬ڬڬ 2006 ߬֬٬ѬӬڬڬެ ܬ֬ݬѬ ܬ, ߬ ڬݬ ߬֬, ֬լ֬ݬ֬ ۬߬ , ߬Ѭ֬ Ӭ֬ެ Ѭ ެ֬ڬܬѬ߬ܬԬ Ѭެ , ܬѬ Ѭ ߬Ѭڬ߬Ѭݬ߬ ֬ڬڬ.

֬ԬѬڬ

 
Map of all Tokelau Islands. Ѭ Ӭ֬ Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ. Swains Island is shown to the south ۬߬ ܬѬ٬Ѭ߬ ߬

Tokelau comprises three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between 171° and 173° W longitude and and 10° S latitude, approximately midway between Hawaii and New Zealand. ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬ ڬ ֬ Ѭݬݬ ج߬ Ѭ ڬԬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬, ެ֬جլ 171 ° 173 ° W ڬ 8 ° 10 ° .. ڬ, ڬެ֬߬ ߬ ݬ ެ֬جլ ѬӬѬ۬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ. They lie about 500 km (311 mi) north of Samoa . ߬ ݬ֬جѬ ڬެ֬߬ 500 ܬ (311 ެڬݬ) ֬Ӭ֬ Ѭެ . The islands are Atafu , at one time known as the Duke of York Group, Nukunonu , also the Duke of Clarence Group, and Fakaofo , once Bowditch Island. Ӭ Ѭ , Ӭ Ӭ֬ެ ڬ٬Ӭ֬߬ ܬѬ Ԭ֬ ܬܬڬ Ԭ ܬ߬߬ , Ѭܬج Ԭ֬ ݬѬ֬߬-Ԭ, ѬܬѬ , ܬԬլ լڬ Ӭ. Between them they comprise a land area of 10.8 km². ެ֬ ߬ ѬӬݬ ֬ڬڬ ݬѬլ 10,8 ܬ ². There are no ports or harbours. ߬֬ ڬݬ . Tokelau lies in the Pacific typhoon belt. ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬Ѭլڬ ڬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬ Ѭ۬ . A fourth island that is culturally, historically, and geographically, but not politically, part of the Tokelau chain is Swains Island (Olohega), under United States control since about 1900 and administered as part of American Samoa since 1925. ֬Ӭ֬ , ܬݬ߬, ڬڬ֬ܬ, Ԭ֬ԬѬڬ֬ܬ, ߬ ߬ ݬڬڬ֬ܬ, Ѭ ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ ۬߬ (Olohega), Ӭ֬Ӭڬ ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ Ѭ ܬ߬ݬ, ܬݬܬ 1900 Ԭլ ѬӬݬݬѬ ܬѬ Ѭ ެ֬ڬܬѬ߬ܬԬ Ѭެ 1925 Ԭլ. The island was claimed by the United States pursuant to the Guano Islands Act as were the other three islands of Tokelau, which claims were ceded to Tokelau by treaty in 1979. Ӭ٬ݬ ߬ ֬Ҭ ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ Ѭ Ӭ֬Ӭڬ Ѭܬ߬ Guano Ӭ Ѭ ج ܬѬ ֬ լԬڬ Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬѬ Ӭ֬جլѬ֬, Ҭݬ ֬֬լѬ߬ ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ լԬӬ 1979 Ԭլ. In the draft constitution of Tokelau subject to the Tokelauan self-determination referendum in 2006, Olohega is claimed as part of Tokelau, a claim surrendered in the same 1979 treaty which established a boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau. ֬ܬ ܬ߬ڬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ݬӬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬֬֬߬լެ Ѭެ֬լ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ 2006 Ԭլ, Ӭ֬جլѬ, Olohega ܬѬ Ѭ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ֬֬߬٬ڬ լѬݬ ج 1979 լԬӬ, ܬ ٬լѬ ԬѬ߬ڬ ެ֬جլ ެ֬ڬܬѬ߬ܬڬ Ѭެ ܬ֬ݬѬ.

Tokelau's claim to Swains is generally comparable to the Marshall Islands ' claim to US-administered Wake Island , but the re-emergence of this somewhat dormant issue has been an unintended result of the United Nations ' recent efforts to promote decolonization in Tokelau. ֬֬߬٬ڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ۬߬, ܬѬ ѬӬڬݬ, ѬӬڬެ ѬѬݬݬӬ Ӭ ֬֬߬٬ڬ , Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬڬӬ߬ ۬ , ߬ Ӭ٬جլ֬߬ڬ ߬֬ܬݬܬ ڬ Ӭ Ҭ Ҭ߬ ֬٬ݬѬ ԬѬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ Ҭ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ Ѭڬ, ' ݬ֬լ߬֬ Ӭ֬ެ ڬݬڬ լ֬۬Ӭڬ լ֬ܬݬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. Basically, Tokelauans have proved somewhat reluctant to push their national identity in the political realm: recent decolonization moves have mainly been driven from outside for ideological reasons. ڬ߬ڬ, ܬ֬ݬѬ ܬѬ٬Ѭݬڬ ߬֬ܬݬܬ ߬֬߬ լݬܬ߬ ڬ ߬Ѭڬ߬Ѭݬ߬ ڬլ֬߬ڬ߬ ݬڬڬ֬ܬ ֬: ݬ֬լ߬ڬ ѬԬ լ֬ܬݬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ ߬Ӭ߬ Ҭݬ ڬ٬Ԭ߬Ѭ߬ ڬ Ӭ߬֬߬ڬ ڬլ֬ݬԬڬ֬ܬڬ ڬڬ߬Ѭ. But at the same time, Tokelauans are reluctant to disown their common cultural identity with Swains Islanders who speak their language. ج Ӭ֬ެ, ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬ ֬ ڬ Ҭ֬ ܬݬ߬ ڬլ֬߬ڬ߬ ӬѬ۬߬ Ӭ, ܬ ԬӬ ߬ ڬ ٬ܬ.

Tokelau is in a different time zone from most of New Zealand, being 10 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) rather than 12 hours in front, meaning a 22 hour time difference for much of the year (New Zealand has daylight saving time (DST) for part of the year while Tokelau never participates). ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬Ѭլڬ լԬ ѬӬ Ҭݬڬ߬Ӭ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ, ѬӬݬ֬ 10 Ѭ Ѭ֬ ߬ڬӬ֬Ѭݬ߬Ԭ ܬլڬ߬ڬӬѬ߬߬Ԭ Ӭ֬ެ֬߬ (UTC), ߬ 12 Ѭ ֬֬լ߬֬, ֬ 22 ѬӬ Ѭ٬߬ڬ Ӭ Ӭ֬ެ֬߬ ֬֬߬ڬ Ҭݬ֬ Ѭ Ԭլ (ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ݬ֬߬֬ Ӭ֬ެ (DST ) Ѭ Ԭլ, ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬ڬܬԬլ ߬ ѬӬ֬). Tokelau is in the same time zone as the Cook Islands and Hawaii rather than neighbouring Samoa and American Samoa . [ 3 ] [ 4 ] ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬Ѭլڬ ج ѬӬ , Ӭ ܬ ѬӬѬ۬ , ߬ ֬լ߬ڬ Ѭެ ެ֬ڬܬѬ߬ܬԬ Ѭެ . [3] [4]

 ֬ԬѬڬ֬ܬ ެ֬ݬج֬߬ڬ  Ѭݬݬ ܬ֬ݬѬ
Atoll ݬ Coordinates լڬ߬Ѭ
Atafu Ѭ 8°33′6″S 172°30′3″W  /  8.55167°S 172.50083°W  / -8.55167; -172.50083 ( Atafu ) 8 ° 33'6 "S 172 ° 30'3" W / 8,55167 ° .. 172,50083 ° W / -8,55167; -172,50083 (Ѭ)
Nukunonu ܬ߬߬ 9°10′6″S 171°48′35″W  /  9.16833°S 171.80972°W  / -9.16833; -171.80972 ( Nukunonu ) 9 ° 10'6 "S 171 ° 48'35" W / 9,16833 ° .. 171,80972 ° W / -9,16833; -171,80972 (ܬ߬߬)
Fakaofo ѬܬѬ 9°21′55″S 171°12′54″W  /  9.36528°S 171.215°W  / -9.36528; -171.215 ( Fakaofo ) 9 ° 21'55 "S 171 ° 12'54" W / 9,36528 ° .. 171,215 ° W / -9,36528; -171,215 (ѬܬѬ)

ڬ

Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau — Atafu , Nukunonu , and Fakaofo — were settled about 1,000 years ago, probably by voyages from Samoa , the Cook Islands and Tuvalu . ֬ݬԬڬ֬ܬڬ լѬ߬߬ ܬѬ٬ӬѬ, Ѭݬݬ ܬ֬ݬѬ - Ѭ , ܬ߬߬ ѬܬѬ - Ҭݬ ٬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ ڬެ֬߬ 1000 ݬ֬ ߬Ѭ٬Ѭ, Ӭ֬߬, ֬۬ ڬ Ѭެ , Ӭ ܬ ӬѬݬ . Oral history traces local traditions and genealogies back several hundred years. [ 5 ] Inhabitants followed Polynesian mythology with the local god Tui Tokelau ; and developed forms of music (see Music of Tokelau ) and art. ߬Ѭ ڬڬ ݬ֬լ ެ֬߬ Ѭլڬڬ լݬӬ߬ ج ߬֬ܬݬܬ ֬ ݬ֬. [5] ڬ֬ݬ ݬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬ ެڬݬԬڬ ެ֬߬ ҬԬ ܬ֬ݬѬ , Ѭ٬Ӭڬ ެ ެ٬ܬ (. ٬ܬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ) . The three atolls functioned largely independently while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. ֬ Ѭݬݬ ߬ܬڬ߬ڬӬѬݬ ٬߬Ѭڬ֬ݬ߬ ֬֬߬ ߬֬٬ѬӬڬڬެ Ӭ֬ެ ܬѬ լݬ լլ֬جѬ߬ڬ ڬѬݬ߬ ٬ܬӬ ݬ֬߬߬. Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans , and there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as inter- marriage . ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ֬Ӭ ֬Ԭݬڬ֬ ԬݬѬӬ߬ ҬѬ٬ ܬݬѬ߬ , լ ֬ڬլڬ֬ܬ ެ֬جլ ѬݬݬѬެ ֬ Ӭ۬ , Ѭܬج ެ֬جլ ҬѬܬ . Fakaofo, the "chiefly island," [ 6 ] held some dominance over Atafu and Nukunonu. ѬܬѬ, "ԬݬѬӬ߬ ҬѬ٬ " [6] Ӭ֬ ߬֬ܬݬܬ ԬլӬ ߬Ѭ Ѭ ܬ߬߬. Life on the atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on fish and coconut . [ 5 ] ڬ٬߬ ߬ ѬݬݬѬ Ҭ ֬ӬӬѬ߬ڬ ߬Ӭ, ߬ Ҭ ܬܬ . [5]

ѬѬլ߬ ܬڬ ܬ߬Ѭܬ

Commodore John Byron discovered Atafu on 24 June 1765 and named it "Duke of York's Island." Commodore ج Ѭ۬ ܬ Ѭ 24 ڬ߬ 1765 ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ ֬Ԭ "Ԭ֬ -ܬ". Parties onshore reported that there were no signs of current or previous inhabitants. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] Captain Edward Edwards , in knowledge of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu on 6 June 1791 [ citation needed ] in search of the Bounty mutineers . ߬ Ҭڬݬ, Ҭ֬֬ԬӬ ߬ Ҭݬ ߬ڬܬѬܬڬ ڬ٬߬Ѭܬ ֬ܬڬ ݬ جڬ֬ݬ֬. [7] [8] ܬѬڬѬ լӬѬ լӬѬլ , ٬߬Ѭ߬ڬ ܬڬ Ѭ۬߬, ֬ڬ Ѭ 6 ڬ߬ 1791 [ ѬӬڬ ] ڬܬѬ Ѭ߬ ެ֬ج߬ڬܬ . There were no permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear, suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing parties. [ 8 ] On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered Nukunonu , naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island". [ 9 ] A landing party could not make contact with the people but saw " morai s," burying places, and canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the lagoons. [ 8 ] ֬ӬӬѬݬ ߬֬ ߬߬ جڬ֬ݬ֬, լެ, լ֬جѬڬ ܬѬ߬ ҬݬӬ߬ ߬Ѭ, ܬѬ٬ӬѬ֬ ߬ ڬݬ٬ӬѬݬ ܬѬ֬Ӭ Ӭ֬ެ֬߬߬Ԭ جڬӬѬ߬ڬ ҬѬݬܬ . [8] 12 ڬ߬ 1791, լӬѬլ ݬݬ ߬ ܬ ܬ߬߬ , ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ ֬ "֬ ݬѬ֬߬" . [9] լ֬Ѭ߬ ߬ ެ Ӭڬ ܬ߬Ѭܬ ݬլެ, ߬ Ӭڬլ֬ "morai ֬ݬ," ߬ڬ ެ֬, ܬѬ߬ "ѬѬ ڬ ֬լ߬֬Ԭ", ݬѬӬѬڬ ݬѬԬ. [8]

On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the USN Dolphin wrote of his crew's arrival at the atoll Nukunonu , "Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, which was quite small, and put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon. They would frequently come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation." 29 ܬҬ 1825 ӬԬ . ߬ USN ֬ݬڬ ڬ֬ ڬҬڬ ܬڬѬج ֬Ԭ ߬ Ѭݬݬ ܬ߬߬ , "ݬ Ӭ֬ܬ ެ Ҭ߬Ѭجڬݬ, ߬ Ҭݬ լѬݬ֬߬ Ӭ ج֬߬ڬ߬ լ֬ ڬ ֬ݬܬ, ܬ Ҭ Ӭ֬ ެѬݬ֬߬ܬڬ, ݬجڬ ڬ ܬѬ߬ ݬ֬جѬ ܬ ݬѬԬ߬. ߬ Ѭ ڬլ Ҭ֬֬Ԭ, ߬ ܬԬլ ެ լݬ ߬ Ҭլ ߬ڬެѬ Ҭݬڬ ެ Ѭլܬ ". (The Journal of the South Pacific, 110 (3), pp. 296). (߬Ѭ ج߬ Ѭ ڬԬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬, 110 (3), . 296).

 
Fakaofo islanders, drawn in 1841 by the United States Exploring Expedition ѬܬѬ Ӭ, ѬӬݬ֬߬߬ 1841 ܬ֬լڬڬ

On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States whaler General Jackson records discovering Fakaofo , calling it "D'Wolf's Island". [ 10 ] [ 11 ] On 25 January 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu and discovered a small population living on the island. 14 ֬ӬѬݬ 1835 ܬѬڬѬ ެڬ ԬլѬ ܬڬҬ Ҭ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ Ԭ֬߬֬Ѭݬ ج֬ܬ߬ ٬Ѭڬ֬ Ҭ߬Ѭج֬߬ڬ ѬܬѬ , ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ ֬Ԭ "D'Wolf's ". [10] [11] 25 ߬ӬѬ 1841 . ԬլѬӬѬެ ٬֬߬ڬ Ҭ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ ܬ֬լڬڬ ֬ڬݬ Ѭ Ҭ߬Ѭجڬ ߬֬Ҭݬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ, جڬӬѬ֬Ԭ ߬ Ӭ. The residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes (used for inter-island travel). ڬ֬ݬ֬, ܬѬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬, Ӭ֬ެ֬߬߬, ֬ Ӭڬլ֬֬ݬӬ֬ Ӭڬ ԬݬѬӬ߬Ԭ ҬݬѬլѬ߬ڬ լӬ۬߬Ԭ ܬѬ߬ (լݬ ެ֬جӬ߬ެ ֬٬լܬ). They desired to barter, and possessed blue beads and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. ߬ ج֬ݬѬݬ ҬѬ֬, ҬݬѬլѬݬ ԬݬҬ Ҭڬ֬ ݬܬ-ج֬ݬ֬٬, ܬѬ٬Ѭ߬ڬ֬ ֬լլڬ Ӭ٬Ѭڬެլ֬۬Ӭڬ ڬ߬Ѭ߬Ѭެ. The expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants. ܬ֬լڬڬ լڬԬݬ ܬ߬߬ 28 ߬ӬѬ 1841, ߬ ߬ ٬ѬڬӬѬ ݬҬ ڬ߬ެѬڬ جڬ֬ݬ֬. On 29 January 1841, the expedition discovered Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch". [ 12 ] The islanders were found to be similar in appearance and nature to those in Atafu. [ 13 ] 29 ߬ӬѬ 1841 Ԭլ ܬ֬լڬڬ Ҭ߬Ѭجڬݬ ѬܬѬ ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ ֬Ԭ "լڬ". [12] Ӭ ܬѬ٬Ѭݬڬ Ѭ߬ѬݬԬڬ߬ Ӭ߬֬߬֬ެ Ӭڬլ ѬѬܬ֬ ֬, ܬ Ѭ. [13]

Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1860s. FrenchCatholic missionaries on Wallis Island (also known as 'Uvea) and missionaries of the ProtestantLondon Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. ڬڬ߬֬ Ӭ֬լӬѬݬ ڬڬѬ߬Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ 1845 լ 1860 Ԭլ. Ѭ߬٬ܬܬѬݬڬ֬ܬ ެڬڬ߬֬ ߬ ݬݬڬ (ڬ٬Ӭ֬߬ Ѭܬج ܬѬ "լڬѬ Ҭݬܬ ԬݬѬ٬߬Ԭ Ҭݬܬ) ެڬڬ߬֬ ֬Ѭ߬ܬԬ߬լ߬ܬԬ ެڬڬ߬֬ܬԬ Ҭ֬Ӭ Ѭެ ڬݬ٬ӬѬ լ߬ ڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ߬Ӭ֬ڬӬѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations. [ 14 ] Peruvianslave traders arrived in 1863 and took nearly all (253) of the able-bodied men to work as labourers. Ѭ Ҭ ֬ҬѬ٬ӬѬ ֬Ѭ߬ڬ٬ ߬լ߬ܬԬ ެڬڬ߬֬ܬԬ Ҭ֬Ӭ, ܬ߬߬ Ҭ ֬ҬѬ٬ӬѬ ܬѬݬڬ֬Ӭ ѬܬѬ Ҭ ֬ҬѬ٬ӬѬ Ҭ֬ڬ ܬ߬֬ڬ. [14] ֬Ѭ߬ܬڬѬҬԬӬ֬ ڬҬ 1863 Ԭլ Ӭ٬ Ӭ (253) ެجڬ լҬ߬Ԭ Ӭ٬Ѭ լݬ ѬҬ ܬѬ֬Ӭ ѬҬڬ . The men died of dysentery and smallpox , and very few returned to Tokelau. ݬլ֬ ެ֬ݬ լڬ٬֬߬֬ڬ , ݬڬ ߬֬ެ߬Ԭڬ Ӭ֬߬ݬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. With this loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual families on each atoll were represented. [ 5 ] [ 11 ] During this time, Polynesian immigrants and American , Scottish , French , Portuguese and German beachcombers settled, marrying local women and repopulating the atolls. [ 11 ] ֬, ڬ֬ެ ѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ Ѭݬ ߬ ߬Ӭ "Ѭݬ֬Ԭ", ڬݬ "Ӭ֬ Ѭ֬۬ڬ", ܬ լ֬ݬ߬ ֬ެ ߬ ܬѬجլ Ѭݬݬ Ҭݬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬߬. [5][11] ֬֬߬ڬ Ԭ Ӭ֬ެ֬߬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬڬ ڬެެڬԬѬ߬ Ѭެ֬ڬܬѬ߬ܬڬ , ݬѬ߬լܬڬ , Ѭ߬٬ܬڬ , ԬѬݬܬڬ ߬֬ެ֬ܬڬ ѬӬѬ߬ڬ ֬ԬݬڬӬѬ, Ӭլڬ ٬Ѭެ ٬ ެ֬߬ ج֬߬ڬ ٬Ѭ֬ݬڬ Ѭݬݬ. [11]

ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ

In 1877 the islands were included under the protection of Great Britain by an Order-in-council which claimed jurisdiction over all unclaimed Pacific Islands . 1877 Ԭլ Ӭ Ҭݬ Ӭܬݬ֬߬ ٬Ѭڬ ֬ݬڬܬҬڬѬ߬ڬ ܬѬ٬ Ӭ֬ ܬ Ӭ֬جլѬݬ ڬլڬܬڬ֬ ߬֬߬ڬ Ӭ֬ ߬֬Ӭ֬ҬӬѬ߬߬ ڬܬ֬Ѭ߬ܬڬ Ӭ . Commander CF Oldham on HMS Egeria landed at each of the three atolls in June 1889 [ 15 ] and officially raised the Union Flag , declaring the group a Britishprotectorate . ެѬ߬լڬ CF ݬլ ߬ HMS Ԭ֬ڬ ڬ٬֬ެݬڬݬ ܬѬجլ ڬ ֬ Ѭݬݬ ڬ߬ 1889 [15] ڬڬѬݬ߬ լ߬ ݬѬ ֬ݬڬܬҬڬѬ߬ڬ , ٬ѬӬڬ, Ԭ ҬڬѬ߬ܬԬ֬ܬѬ . The British government annexed Tokelau to the colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands and transferred Tokelau to New Zealand administration in 1926, abolishing the islands' chiefdoms. ڬѬ߬ܬ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ ڬݬѬԬѬ֬ެ ܬ֬ݬѬ ܬݬ߬ڬ Ӭ ڬݬҬ֬ ݬݬڬ ֬֬լѬ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬڬ 1926 Ԭլ, ެ֬߬ڬ Ӭ ݬ֬ެ֬. By the Tokelau Act of 1948, sovereignty over Tokelau was transferred to New Zealand. ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭܬ 1948 Ԭլ, Ӭ֬֬߬ڬ֬ ߬Ѭ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ ֬֬լѬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ. Defence is also the responsibility of New Zealand . Ҭ߬ Ѭܬج Ӭ֬Ӭ֬߬߬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ . However, the Tokelauans are drafting a constitution and developing institutions and patterns of self-government as Tokelau moves towards free association with New Zealand , similarly to Niue and the Cook Islands . [ citation needed ] ֬ ߬ ެ֬߬֬, ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭ٬ѬҬѬӬѬ ܬ߬ڬڬ ٬լѬ߬ڬ ڬ߬ڬ ܬ ެ֬߬Ԭ ѬެѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ, ܬѬ լӬڬج֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ӬҬլ߬ ѬڬѬڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ , ܬѬ ڬ Ӭ ܬ . [ ѬӬڬ ]

Villages are entitled to enact their own laws regulating their daily lives and New Zealand law only applies where it has been extended by specific enactment. ֬֬Ӭ߬ ڬެ֬ ѬӬ ڬ߬ڬެѬ Ӭ ҬӬ֬߬߬ ٬Ѭܬ߬, ֬Ԭݬڬڬ ڬ Ӭ֬լ߬֬Ӭ߬ جڬ٬߬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ٬Ѭܬ ڬެ֬߬֬ ݬܬ, Ԭլ Ҭ լݬ֬ ߬ ܬ߬ܬ֬߬ ڬ߬ڬ. Serious crime is rare and there are no prisons - offenders are publicly rebuked, fined or made to work [ 16 ] جܬ ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ Ӭݬ֬ ֬լܬڬ ߬֬ ֬ - ֬߬ڬܬ Ҭݬڬ߬ ֬ܬ߬, ѬӬѬ߬ ڬݬ ٬ѬѬӬڬ ѬҬѬ [16]

ݬڬڬܬ

The head of state is Elizabeth II , the Queen in right of New Zealand , who also reigns over the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms . ݬѬӬ ԬլѬӬ Ӭݬ֬ ݬڬ٬ѬӬ֬ II , ܬݬ֬Ӭ ѬӬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ , ܬ Ѭܬج ԬլӬ֬ ߬Ѭ ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬Ԭ ݬ֬ӬӬ լԬڬ ֬Ѭ լج֬Ӭ . The Queen is represented in the territory by Administrator David Payton . ݬ֬Ӭ ֬լѬӬݬ֬߬ ߬ ֬ڬڬ լެڬ߬ڬѬ ֬۬Ӭڬ ֬۬ . The current head of government is Kuresa Nasau , who presides over the Council for the Ongoing Governance of Tokelau, which functions as a cabinet. ߬֬߬ڬ ԬݬѬӬ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ ֬ ѬѬ , ܬ ֬լ֬լѬ֬ݬӬ֬ ߬ ٬Ѭ֬լѬ߬ڬ Ӭ֬ լ֬۬Ӭ֬Ԭ ѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬ ߬ܬڬ߬ڬ֬ ܬѬ֬Ӭ ܬѬҬڬ߬֬. The Council consists of the Faipule (leader) and Pulenuku (village mayor) of each of the three atolls. [ 17 ] The monarch is hereditary, the administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand, and the office of head of government rotates between the three Faipule for a one-year term. [ 17 ] Ӭ֬ ڬ ڬ Ѭڬݬ (ݬڬլ֬) ݬ֬߬ܬ (֬ݬ ެ) ܬѬجլԬ ڬ ֬ Ѭݬݬ. [17] ެ߬Ѭ Ӭݬ֬ ߬Ѭݬ֬լӬ֬߬߬ Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬ, ߬Ѭ٬߬ѬѬ֬ެ ެڬ߬ڬ ڬ߬Ѭ߬߬ լ֬ ԬӬݬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ, լݬج߬ ԬݬѬӬ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ ֬֬լ߬ Ѭڬݬ ߬ լڬ . [17]

The Tokelau Amendment Act of 1996 confers legislative power on the General Fono, a unicameral body. ܬ֬ݬѬ ѬӬܬ 1996 Ԭլ ߬Ѭլ֬ݬ֬ ٬Ѭܬ߬լѬ֬ݬ߬ ӬݬѬ Ҭ֬ެ ߬, լ߬ѬݬѬ߬ ԬѬ. The number of seats each atoll receives in the Fono is determined by population — at present, Fakaofo and Atafu both have eight and Nukunonu has seven. [ 17 ] Faipule and Pukenuku (atoll leaders and village mayors) also sit in the Fono. [ 17 ] ݬڬ֬Ӭ ެ֬ ߬ ܬѬجլ ڬ Ѭݬݬ ݬѬ֬ ߬ ֬լ֬ݬ֬ ڬݬ֬߬߬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ - ߬Ѭ֬ Ӭ֬ެ, ѬܬѬ Ѭ Ҭ ڬެ֬ Ӭ֬ެ ֬ެ ܬ߬߬. [17] Ѭڬݬ Pukenuku (Ѭݬ ݬڬլ֬ լ֬֬Ӭ֬߬ܬڬ ѬѬ) ڬլ֬ ߬. [17 ]

On 11 November 2004 Tokelau and New Zealand took steps to formulate a treaty that would turn Tokelau from a non-self-governing territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. 11 ߬Ҭ 2004 Ԭլ ܬ֬ݬѬ ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ڬ߬ݬ ެ֬ Ѭ٬ѬҬܬ լԬӬ, ܬ ֬ӬѬڬ Ҭ ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬֬ѬެѬӬݬѬ ֬ڬڬ ߬֬٬ѬӬڬڬެ ԬլѬӬ ѬެܬѬ ӬҬլ߬ ѬڬѬڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ֬. Besides the treaty, a UN -sponsored referendum on self-determination took place, with the three islands voting on successive days starting 13 February 2006. ެ Ԭ, լԬӬ, , Ԭڬլ ֬֬֬߬լެ Ӭ Ѭެ֬լ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ ܬ ڬ߬ݬ Ѭڬ Ӭ ԬݬӬѬ߬ڬ ߬ ݬ֬լڬ լ߬, ߬Ѭڬ߬Ѭ 13 ֬ӬѬݬ 2006. (Tokelauans based in Apia, Samoa , voted on February 11.) [ 18 ] . (ܬ֬ݬѬѬ߬֬, جڬӬѬڬ ڬ, Ѭެ , ԬݬӬѬ߬ڬ 11 ֬ӬѬݬ.) [18] . Out of 581 votes cast, 349 were for Free Association, being short of the two-thirds majority required for the measure to pass. [ 19 ] The referendum was profiled (somewhat light-heartedly) in the 1 May 2006 issue of The New Yorker magazine. [ 20 ] A repeat referendum took place on October 20–24, 2007 , again narrowly failing to approve self-government. 581 Ԭݬ, 349 Ҭݬ ӬҬլ߬ ѬڬѬڬ, Ҭլ ެ֬߬ լӬ ֬ Ԭݬ, ߬֬Ҭլڬެ լݬ ެ֬ ۬. [19] ֬֬֬߬լ Ҭ ڬݬڬӬѬ߬߬ (߬֬ܬݬܬ ݬ֬Ԭܬެݬ֬߬߬) 1 ެѬ 2006 . ج߬Ѭݬ The New Yorker ج߬Ѭ. [20] Ӭڬ ֬֬֬߬լ ݬ 20-24 ܬҬ 2007 Ԭլ , Ӭ߬Ӭ Ӭڬ Ӭ֬լڬ ѬެѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ. This time the vote was short by just 16 votes or 3%. [ 21 ] Ѭ ԬݬӬѬ߬ڬ Ҭݬ ߬ լլ Ӭ֬Ԭ 16 Ԭݬ, ڬݬ 3%. [21]

In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories ", including Tokelau. [ 22 ] This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence". [ 23 ] In April 2008, speaking as leader of the National Party , future New Zealand Prime Minister John Key stated that New Zealand had "imposed two referenda on the people of the Tokelau Islands", and questioned "the accepted wisdom that small states should undergo a de-colonisation process". [ 24 ] ެѬ 2008 Ԭլ ԬѬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ Ҭ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ Ѭڬ ֬߬֬Ѭݬ߬ ֬ܬ֬Ѭ Ѭ ڬ٬ӬѬ ܬݬ߬ڬѬݬ߬ լ֬جѬӬ ", Ҭ ٬ѬӬ֬ڬ ֬ լ֬ܬݬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ, ܬѬجլ ڬ Ѭݬ߬ 16 ެ֬ լݬ ߬֬ѬެѬӬݬڬ ֬ڬڬ ", ڬݬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. [22] ڬӬ֬ݬ New Zealand Herald ܬެެ֬߬ڬӬѬ, ԬѬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ Ҭ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ Ѭڬ ", ֬Ӭڬլ߬ Ѭ٬ѬӬѬ߬ լӬ ߬֬լѬ߬ ݬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ԬݬӬѬ ٬ ߬֬٬ѬӬڬڬެ". [23] Ѭ֬ݬ 2008 Ԭլ, ӬѬ ܬѬ֬Ӭ ݬڬլ֬ Ѭڬ߬Ѭݬ߬ Ѭڬ , Ҭլ֬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ֬ެ֬-ެڬ߬ڬ ج ֬ ٬ѬӬڬ, ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ "߬ѬӬ٬ӬѬ լӬ ֬֬֬߬լެ լݬ ߬Ѭլ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ", ѬӬڬ ެ߬֬߬ڬ "Ҭ֬ڬ߬ ެ߬֬߬ڬ, ެѬݬ ԬլѬӬ լݬج߬ ۬ ֬ լ ܬݬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ". [24]

ܬ߬ެڬܬ

According to the Central Intelligence Agency 's list of countries by GDP (PPP) Tokelau has the smallest economy of any country in the world. լѬ߬߬ ֬߬Ѭݬ߬Ԭ Ѭ٬Ӭ֬լӬѬ֬ݬ߬Ԭ ѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ S ' ڬ Ѭ () ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬Ѭڬެ֬߬ڬ ܬ߬ެڬܬ ݬҬ Ѭ߬ ެڬ. Tokelau has an annual purchasing power of about US$1,000 (€674) per capita. ܬ֬ݬѬ ڬެ֬֬ ԬլӬ ܬѬ֬ݬ߬ Ҭ߬ ܬݬ $ 1000 (€ 674) ߬ լ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ. The government is almost entirely dependent on subsidies from New Zealand. ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ Ѭܬڬ֬ܬ ݬ߬ ٬ѬӬڬڬ լѬڬ ڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ. It has annual revenues of less than US$500,000 (€336,995) against expenditures of some US$2.8 million (€1.9 million). ֬ج֬Ԭլ߬ լ ެ֬߬֬ $ 500000 (€ 336995) ߬֬߬ڬ Ѭլ ܬݬ $ 2,8 ެݬ. (€ 1,9 ެݬ). The deficit is made up by aid from New Zealand. ֬ڬڬ ѬӬڬ ܬѬ٬Ѭ߬ڬ ެ, ڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ. Tokelau annually exports around US$100,000 (€67,400) of stamps , copra and woven and carved handicrafts and imports over US$300,000 (€202,197) of foodstuffs, building materials, and fuel to, and from, New Zealand. ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬ج֬Ԭլ߬ ܬڬ֬ ܬݬ $ 100000 (€ 67400) ެѬܬ , ܬ ܬѬ߬ ֬٬߬ ֬ެ֬֬ ڬެ Ҭݬ֬ $ 300000 (€ 202197) լܬ ڬѬ߬ڬ, ڬ֬ݬ߬ ެѬ֬ڬѬݬ, ݬڬӬ, Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ. New Zealand also pays directly for the cost of medical and education services. ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ Ѭܬج ݬѬڬ ߬֬֬լӬ֬߬߬ ߬ ݬѬ ެ֬լڬڬ߬ܬڬ ҬѬ٬ӬѬ֬ݬ߬ ݬ. Local industries include small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft goods, stamps, coins, and fishing. ֬߬Ѭ ެݬ֬߬߬ ӬܬݬѬ֬ ެѬݬ ֬լڬڬ լݬ ܬ ڬ٬ӬլӬ, ѬҬ լ֬֬Ӭ, ݬ֬֬߬ ެݬ, ެѬܬ, ެ߬֬, Ѭܬج ҬݬӬӬ. Agriculture and livestock produces coconuts , copra , breadfruit , papayas , bananas , pigs , poultry and few goats . ֬ݬܬ ٬۬Ӭ جڬӬ߬ӬլӬ ڬ٬Ӭլڬ ܬܬ , ܬ , ݬ֬Ҭ߬ լ֬֬Ӭ , ѬѬ۬ , ҬѬ߬Ѭ߬ , Ӭڬ߬֬ , ڬ ߬֬ܬݬܬ ܬ . A large number of Tokelauans live in New Zealand and support their families in Tokelau through remittances . ݬ ܬݬڬ֬Ӭ جڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ جڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ լլ֬جڬӬѬ Ӭ ֬ެ ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬֬ լ֬߬֬ج߬ ֬֬Ӭլ .

ެ֬߬߬ ڬެ ߬֬߬֬

Tokelau has added more than 10% to its GDP through registrations of domain names under its top-level domain , .tk . [ 25 ] Registrations can be either free, in which case the user owns only usage rights and not the domain itself, or paid, which grants full rights. ܬ֬ݬѬ լҬѬӬڬ Ҭݬ֬ 10% ֬ ֬ԬڬѬڬ լެ֬߬߬ ڬެ֬ ֬Ԭ լެ֬ Ӭ֬߬֬Ԭ Ӭ߬ , . . [25] ֬ԬڬѬڬ ެج֬ Ҭ ӬҬլ߬, ݬѬ ݬ٬ӬѬ֬ݬ ڬެ֬֬ ݬܬ ѬӬ ݬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ, ߬ Ѭ լެ֬, ڬݬ ݬѬ֬߬, ܬ ֬լѬӬݬ֬ ݬ߬ ֬ݬӬ֬ܬ. Free domains are pointed to Tokelau name servers and the only services available are HTTP traffic being redirected via HTML frames to a specified address, and the redirection of up to 250 email address to external address (not at a .tk domain). ֬ݬѬ߬ լެ֬߬ ܬѬ٬Ѭ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬Ӭ֬ ڬެ֬ , ݬܬ Ѭڬ ݬԬѬ HTTP Ѭڬ ֬֬߬ѬѬӬݬ ֬֬ HTML ܬѬլ ߬ ܬѬ٬Ѭ߬߬ Ѭլ֬, Ѭܬج ֬֬߬ѬѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ լ 250 Ѭլ֬ ݬ֬ܬ߬߬ , ߬ Ӭ߬֬߬ڬ Ѭլ֬ (߬ ߬. լެ֬߬). As of January 2009 Free domains have no requirements for third party advertisements but have a minimum traffic limit of 25 unique visitors in any 90 day period. ߬ڬ ߬ ߬ӬѬ 2009 ֬ݬѬ߬ լެ֬߬ ߬ ڬެ֬ ֬ҬӬѬ߬ڬ ֬֬ ߬ ֬ܬݬѬެ, ߬ ެڬ߬ڬެѬݬ߬ Ѭڬ 25 ߬ڬܬѬݬ߬ ֬ڬ֬ݬ֬ ݬҬ ֬ڬ ֬֬߬ڬ 90 լ߬֬. If this limit is not reached, the domain is suspended and the owner has either 10 days to convert the domain to a paid domain or have the domain deregistered. [ citation needed ] ݬ ֬լ֬ ߬ լڬԬ߬, լެ֬߬ ڬѬ߬ѬӬݬڬӬѬ֬, ܬѬ ӬݬѬլ֬ݬ֬ 10 լ߬֬, Ҭ ֬ҬѬ٬ӬѬ լެ֬ ߬ ݬѬ߬ լެ֬ ڬݬ լެ֬ ެ֬߬. [ ѬӬڬ ]

In September 2003 Fakaofo became the first part of Tokelau with a high-speed Internet connection. Foundation Tokelau financed the project. ֬߬Ҭ 2003 ѬܬѬ Ѭݬ ֬Ӭ Ѭ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭܬܬ߬ ߬֬߬֬ ֬լڬ߬֬߬ڬ. ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬ ڬ߬Ѭ߬ڬӬѬ ֬ܬ. Tokelau gives most domain names under its authority away to anyone for free to gain publicity for the territory. ܬ֬ݬѬ լѬ֬ ߬ѬڬҬݬ֬ լެ֬߬߬ ڬެ֬ ֬Ԭ ܬӬլӬ ߬ڬܬެ Ҭ֬ݬѬ߬, Ҭ ݬڬ ڬܬ Ӭ֬֬߬ڬ ֬ڬڬ. This has allowed the nation to gain enhanced telecommunications technologies, such as more computers and Internet access for Tokelauan residents. [ citation needed ] ٬Ӭݬڬݬ ݬڬ ߬Ѭڬ ֬֬լӬ ֬߬ݬԬڬ Ӭ٬, Ѭܬڬ, ܬѬ Ҭݬ֬ ܬެ֬ լ ߬֬߬֬ լݬ جڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ جڬ֬ݬ֬. [ ѬӬڬ ]

֬ެԬѬڬ

 
The atoll of Fakaofo , southernmost of the Tokelau Islands ݬ ڬ ѬܬѬ , ج߬ Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ

Tokelau has a population of 1,433 (as of July 2008). ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ֬ 1433 ( ߬ڬ ߬ ڬݬ 2008). This is lower than 2007, showing a declining population. ܬѬ٬Ѭ֬ݬ ߬ڬج, ֬ 2007 Ԭլ, Ӭڬլ֬֬ݬӬ֬ ܬѬѬ֬֬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ Ѭ߬. The nationals of Tokelau are called Tokelauans , and the major ethnic group is Polynesian . ѬجլѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ߬Ѭ٬ӬѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ , Ѭܬج ߬Ӭ߬ ߬ڬ֬ܬڬ Ԭ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬڬ . The country has no minorities. Ѭ߬ ߬֬ ެ֬߬ڬ߬. The major religion is the Congregational Christian Church and the main language is Tokelauan , but English is also spoken. ߬Ӭ߬ ֬ݬڬԬڬ ߬Ԭ֬ԬѬ֬߬Ѭ ڬڬѬ߬ܬ ֬ܬӬ , ߬Ӭ߬ ٬ ܬ֬ݬѬ , ߬ Ѭ߬Ԭݬڬ۬ܬڬ ج ԬӬ.

Tokelau has fewer than 1,500 Polynesian inhabitants in three villages who speak Tokelauan and English . ܬ֬ݬѬ ެ֬߬֬ 1500 ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬڬ جڬ֬ݬ֬ ֬ լ֬֬Ӭ֬߬, ܬ ԬӬ ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭ߬Ԭݬڬ۬ܬڬ . Their isolation and lack of resources greatly limits economic development and confines agriculture to the subsistence level. ڬ٬ݬڬӬѬ߬߬ Ӭڬ ֬ ֬Ӭ֬߬߬ ԬѬ߬ڬڬӬѬ֬ ܬ߬ެڬ֬ܬ Ѭ٬Ӭڬڬ ԬѬ߬ڬڬӬѬ֬ ֬ݬܬԬ ٬۬Ӭ լ Ӭ߬ جڬ߬Ԭ ެڬ߬ڬެެ. The very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand and Samoa , resulting in a population decline of about 0.9% per year. ֬ެ ԬѬ߬ڬ֬߬߬ ڬլ߬ ֬ ֬֬߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ Ӭ߬ Ӭ ӬܬݬѬ ެڬԬѬڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ Ѭެ , ֬٬ݬѬ ܬѬ֬߬ڬ ڬݬ֬߬߬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ ܬݬ 0,9% Ԭ. Depletion of tuna has made fishing for food more difficult. ֬߬ڬ ߬ լ֬ݬѬ ҬݬӬӬ լݬ ڬ٬ӬլӬ լܬ ڬѬ߬ڬ Ҭݬ֬ լ߬.

On the island of Atafu almost all inhabitants are members of the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa . Ӭ Ѭ Ӭ جڬ֬ݬ Ӭݬ ݬ֬߬Ѭެ ߬Ԭ֬ԬѬ֬߬Ѭ ڬڬѬ߬ܬ ֬ܬӬ Ѭެ . On Nukunonu almost all are Roman Catholic . ܬ߬߬ Ӭ ڬެܬ-ܬѬݬڬ֬ܬ . On Fakaofo both denominations are present with the Congregational Christian Church predominant. ѬܬѬ Ҭڬ ߬ެڬ߬Ѭݬ ڬӬڬ ֬ҬݬѬլѬ֬ ڬڬѬ߬ܬ ֬ܬӬ ߬Ԭ֬ԬѬ֬߬Ѭ. The total proportions are: Congregational Christian Church 62%, Roman Catholic 34%, other 5%. [ 26 ] Ҭ֬ ڬ: ߬Ԭ֬ԬѬ֬߬Ѭ ڬڬѬ߬ܬ ֬ܬӬ 62%, ܬѬݬڬܬ 34%, լԬڬ 5%. [26]

While slightly more females than males live on Atafu and Fakaofo, males make up 57% of Nukunonu residents. [ 27 ] Only 9% of Tokelauans aged 40 or more have never been married. [ 28 ] One quarter of the population were born overseas; almost all the rest live on the same atoll they were born on. [ 29 ] Most households own 5 or more pigs. [ 30 ] ߬֬ܬݬܬ Ҭݬ ج֬߬ڬ, ֬ ެجڬ جڬӬ ߬ Ѭ ѬܬѬ, ެجڬ߬ ѬӬݬ 57% جڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ߬߬. [27] ݬܬ 9% جڬ֬ݬ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ٬Ѭ 40 Ҭݬ֬ ߬ڬܬԬլ ߬ Ҭ ج֬߬Ѭ. [28] ֬Ӭ֬ ߬Ѭ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ լڬݬڬ ٬ ԬѬ߬ڬ֬; Ӭ Ѭݬ߬ جڬӬ ߬ լ߬ Ѭݬݬ ߬ լڬݬڬ. [29] ݬڬ߬Ӭ ֬ެ֬ ڬެ֬ 5 Ҭݬ֬ . [30]

Despite its low income, Tokelau has a life expectancy of 69 years, comparable with parts of Europe[ 31 ] ֬ެ ߬ ߬ڬ٬ܬڬ Ӭ֬߬ լլ, ܬ֬ݬѬ, ֬լ߬ լݬجڬ֬ݬ߬ جڬ٬߬ 69 ݬ֬, ѬӬڬެ Ѭެ Ӭ[31]

լѬӬѬ߬֬߬ڬ ҬѬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ

Each atoll has a school and hospital. Ѭجլ Ѭݬ ڬެ֬֬ ܬݬ Ҭݬ߬ڬ. The health services have a Director of Health based in Apia and a Chief Clinical Advisor who moves from atoll to atoll as required to assist the doctors attached to each hospital. ݬ ҬݬѬ ٬լѬӬѬ߬֬߬ڬ լڬ֬ܬ ӬѬ ٬լѬӬѬ߬֬߬ڬ ҬѬ٬ڬ֬ ڬ ԬݬѬӬ߬ Ӭ֬߬ڬ ܬݬڬ߬ڬ֬ܬ ܬ ֬֬֬٬جѬ֬ Ѭݬݬ ߬ Ѭݬ ߬֬Ҭլڬެ լݬ ܬѬ٬Ѭ߬ڬ ެ ӬѬ֬ ܬѬجլ Ҭݬ߬ڬ. In 2007 there was not always a doctor on each island and locums were appointed to fill the gaps. 2007 Ԭլ Ҭݬ ߬ Ӭ֬Ԭլ ӬѬ ߬ ܬѬجլ Ӭ locums Ҭݬ ߬Ѭ٬߬Ѭ֬߬ լݬ ٬Ѭݬ߬֬߬ڬ Ҭ֬ݬ. Upcoming Tokelaun medical graduates should alleviate this shortage in the coming years. ֬լڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭܬ߬ڬܬ ެ֬լڬڬ߬ܬڬ ֬Ҭ߬ ٬ѬӬ֬լ֬߬ڬ լݬج߬ Ҭݬ֬Ԭڬ լ֬ڬڬ ҬݬڬجѬ۬ڬ Ԭլ.

Many Tokelauan youth travel to New Zealand to further their education and the ship is full around Christmas time with students returning home and then heading off for another year of study. ߬Ԭڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ެݬլ֬ج߬Ԭ ڬ٬ެ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ, Ҭ լݬجڬ Ӭ ҬѬ٬ӬѬ߬ڬ, ܬѬҬݬ ݬ߬ جլ֬Ӭ Ӭ֬ެ լ֬߬, Ӭ֬߬Ӭڬ֬ լެ, ѬӬڬ ߬ լڬ Ԭ Ҭ֬߬ڬ.

Ӭ٬

Tokelau has a radio telephone service between the islands and to Samoa . ܬ֬ݬѬ ֬ݬ֬߬߬ ѬլڬӬ٬ ެ֬جլ ӬѬެ Ѭެ . In 1997, a government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok) with three satellite earth stations was established. 1997 Ԭլ ֬Ԭݬڬ֬ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ ֬ݬ֬߬߬ Ӭ٬ (Teletok) ٬֬ެ߬ Ѭ߬ڬ ߬ڬܬӬ Ӭ٬ Ҭݬ ٬լѬ߬. Each atoll has a radio-broadcast station that broadcasts shipping and weather reports and every household has a radio or access to one. Ѭجլ Ѭݬ ڬެ֬֬ Ѭլڬ-Ӭ֬Ѭ߬ڬ Ѭ߬ڬ, ܬѬ Ѭ߬ݬڬ֬ լլӬ Ҭ֬߬ڬ Ԭլ ܬѬجլ լެ ֬ Ѭլڬ լ լ߬ެ.

 
A barge leaves the landing ramp in Nukuono to collect cargo and passengers from the MV Tokelau Ѭج ݬڬ Ѭլܬ Ѭެ Nukuono լݬ Ҭ Ԭ٬ ѬѬجڬ . . ܬ֬ݬѬ

Tokelau is served by the MV Tokelau , owned by the country, with the trip from Apia taking a little over a day. ܬ֬ݬѬ ݬجڬ . ܬ֬ݬѬ, ڬ߬Ѭլݬ֬جѬڬ Ѭ߬, ֬٬լܬ ڬ ڬ Ҭݬ֬ լ֬߬. Ships load and unload cargo by motoring up to the down-wind ( leeward ) side of the islet where the people live and maintaining station, by intermittent use of engines, close to the reef edge so that a landing barge can be motored out to transfer cargo to or from the shore. ѬӬܬ Ԭ٬ܬ ӬԬ٬ܬ Ԭ٬ ѬӬެҬڬݬ߬Ԭ լ լӬ֬֬߬߬ ( լӬ֬֬߬߬ ) ߬ Ӭܬ, Ԭլ ݬլ جڬӬ լլ֬جѬ߬ڬ Ѭ߬ڬ, ֬Ӭڬ ڬݬ٬ӬѬ լӬڬԬѬ֬ݬ, ߬֬լѬݬ֬ܬ ڬ ܬѬ֬, Ѭ ҬѬج ެج߬ ެ ڬ ֬֬լѬ Ԭ٬ ڬݬ Ҭ֬֬Ԭ. On returning to shore, the barge negotiates a narrow channel through the reef to the beach. Ӭ٬ӬѬ֬߬ڬ ߬ Ҭ֬֬, ҬѬج ֬֬ԬӬ ٬ܬڬ ܬѬ߬Ѭ, ڬ Ҭ֬֬Ԭ. Usually this landing is subject to ocean swell and beaching requires considerable skill and, often, coral abrasions to bodies. Ѭ ѬӬڬݬ, Ѭլܬ ެج֬ Ҭ Ӭݬ߬֬߬ڬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬ ӬѬܬڬӬѬ߬ڬ ֬Ҭ֬ ٬߬Ѭڬ֬ݬ߬ ߬ѬӬܬ , ٬ѬѬ, ܬѬݬݬӬ Ѭլڬ߬ ֬ݬ.

When bad weather prevents the barge making the trip, the ship stands off to wait suitable weather or goes off to one of the other atolls to attempt to load or unload its passengers or cargo, or both. ݬ ݬѬ Ԭլ ߬ ٬Ӭݬ֬ ҬѬج լ֬ݬѬ֬ ֬٬լܬ, լ߬ ڬ جլѬ լլ֬ Ԭլ ڬݬ լڬ լڬ ڬ լԬڬ Ѭݬݬ ܬ ٬ѬԬجѬ ڬݬ ӬԬجѬ ѬѬجڬ ڬݬ Ԭ٬, ڬݬ Ҭڬ.

ڬܬݬ ֬

Cyclone Percy struck and severely damaged Tokelau in late February and early March 2005. ڬܬݬ ֬ լѬڬ ֬֬٬߬ Ӭ֬جլ֬߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ܬ߬ ֬ӬѬݬ ߬ѬѬݬ ެѬ 2005 Ԭլ. Forecasters underestimated the cyclone's strength and the length of time it would be in vicinity to Tokelau. ڬ߬ڬܬ ߬֬լ֬߬ڬ ڬݬ ڬܬݬ߬ Ӭ֬ެ֬߬ Ҭլ֬ ܬ֬߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. It coincided with a spring tide which put most of the area of the two villages on Fakaofo and Nukunonu under a metre of seawater. ӬѬݬ Ӭ֬߬ ڬݬڬӬ ܬ ѬӬ Ҭݬڬ߬Ӭ ڬ ҬݬѬ լӬ լ֬֬Ӭ߬ ߬ ѬܬѬ ܬ߬߬ ެ֬ ެܬ Ӭլ. The cyclone also caused major erosion on several islets of all three atolls, damaging roads and bridges and disrupting electric power and telecommunications systems. ڬܬݬ Ѭܬج Ӭ٬ӬѬݬ ܬ߬ ٬ڬ ߬ ߬֬ܬݬܬڬ Ӭܬ Ӭ֬ ֬ Ѭݬݬ, Ӭ֬جլ֬߬ڬ լ ެ, ߬ѬѬ ݬ֬ܬ߬֬Ԭڬ ֬ݬ֬ܬެެ߬ڬܬѬڬ߬߬ ڬ֬. The cyclone did significant and widespread damage to food crops including bananas , coconuts and pandanus . ڬܬݬ լ֬ݬѬ ֬Ӭ֬߬߬ ڬܬ ѬѬ߬֬߬߬ Ӭ֬جլ֬߬ڬ լӬݬӬ֬߬߬ ܬݬ, ӬܬݬѬ ҬѬ߬Ѭ߬ , ܬܬ ج֬ ߬ Ѭݬެ . It did not seriously injure anyone but villagers lost significant amounts of property. ߬ ֬֬٬߬ Ѭ߬ڬ ߬ڬܬԬ, ܬެ جڬ֬ݬ֬ ֬ݬ ٬߬Ѭڬ֬ݬ߬ ܬݬڬ֬Ӭ ڬެ֬Ӭ. The geographic future of Tokelau depends on the height of the ocean. ֬ԬѬڬ֬ܬڬ Ҭլ֬Ԭ ܬ֬ݬѬ ٬ѬӬڬڬ Ӭ ܬ֬Ѭ. No significant land is more than two metres above high water of ordinary tides. ڬܬѬܬڬ ֬Ӭ֬߬߬ ٬֬ެݬ Ҭݬ֬ ֬ ߬ լӬ ެ֬ ߬Ѭ Ӭլ ӬܬԬ Ҭܬ߬Ӭ֬߬߬ ڬݬڬӬ. This means Tokelau is particularly vulnerable to any possible sea level rises caused by global warming . ٬߬ѬѬ֬, ܬ֬ݬѬ, ܬѬ Ҭ֬߬߬ ٬Ӭڬެ լݬ Ӭ٬ެج߬ Ӭ֬߬ ެ լ߬ڬެѬ֬ Ӭ٬ӬѬ߬߬ ԬݬҬѬݬ߬ ֬ݬ֬߬ڬ֬ .

߬ڬԬ ҬݬڬܬѬڬ

  • Tokelau: a historical ethnography by Judith Huntsman & Antony Hooper (1996, Auckland University Press) ISBN 1869401530 ܬ֬ݬѬ: ڬڬ֬ܬ ߬ԬѬڬ جլڬ ߬ڬ ߬߬ڬ ֬ (1996, ܬݬ֬߬ University Press) ISBN 1869401530
  • The Future of Tokelau: decolonising agendas by Judith Huntsman with Kelihiano Kalolo (2007, Auckland University Press) ISBN 9781869403980 լ֬ ܬ֬ݬѬ: լ֬ܬݬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ Ӭ֬ܬ լ߬ جլڬ ߬ڬ Kelihiano Kalolo (2007, ܬݬ֬߬ University Press) ISBN 9781869403980
  • Tokelau: People, atolls, and history by Peter McQuarrie (2007, Peter McQuarrie Press) ISBN 9781877449413 ܬ֬ݬѬ: լ, Ѭݬݬ, ڬڬ֬, ֬ Ѭܬ (2007, ڬ֬ Ѭܬܬ Press) ISBN 9781877449413

. Ѭܬج

ڬ ݬڬ֬Ѭ

  1. ^ http://www.tokelau-info.tk/^ http://www.tokelau-info.tk/
  2. ^ "Official site for the Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government" . http://www.tokelau.org.nz/ . ^ "ڬڬѬݬ߬ Ѭ۬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ֬ լ֬۬Ӭ֬Ԭ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ" . http://www.tokelau.org.nz/ . Retrieved 2007-11-04 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-11-04. "The basis of Tokelau's legislative, administrative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948 and its amendments. (See the link "LAW") In November 1974 the administration of Tokelau was transferred from the Mäori and Island Affairs Department to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From then until September 1980, when the Tokelau administration regulations were amended, the New Zealand Secretary of Foreign Affairs was the administrator of Tokelau. New regulations then came into force whereby the Minister of Foreign Affairs was empowered to appoint a suitable person to be the Administrator of Tokelau. The New Zealand flag is used and the anthem is God Save the Queen." " ߬Ӭ ٬Ѭܬ߬լѬ֬ݬ߬, ܬ֬ݬѬ, Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬڬӬ߬ լ֬Ҭ߬ ڬ֬ Ӭ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭܬ 1948 Ԭլ ѬӬ ߬֬ެ. (. ݬܬ" Ѭܬ ") ߬Ҭ 1974 Ԭլ Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ ֬֬Ӭ֬լ֬ ڬ ެѬ Ӭ լ֬ݬѬެ ڬ߬ڬ֬Ӭ ڬ߬Ѭ߬߬ լ֬. ֬ լ ֬߬Ҭ 1980 Ԭլ, ܬԬլ Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ ѬӬڬݬ Ҭݬ Ӭ߬֬֬߬ ѬӬܬ, Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ެڬ߬ڬ ڬ߬Ѭ߬߬ լ֬ Ҭ Ѭլެڬ߬ڬѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. Ӭ ѬӬڬݬ ӬڬӬڬ ڬݬ ܬ ެڬ߬ڬ ڬ߬Ѭ߬߬ լ֬ Ҭ ݬ߬ެ֬ ߬Ѭ٬߬Ѭڬ լլ֬ ݬڬ, ܬ Ҭլ֬ լެڬ߬ڬѬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. ݬѬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ܬԬ ڬݬ٬֬, Ԭڬެ "ج, Ѭ߬ ܬݬ֬Ӭ".  
  3. ^ "Current local time in Fakaofo, Tokelau" . WorldTimeZone.com . http://www.worldtimezone.com/time/wtzresult.php?CiID=42135 . ^ "֬ܬ֬ ެ֬߬ Ӭ֬ެ ѬܬѬ, ܬ֬ݬѬ" . WorldTimeZone.com. http://www.worldtimezone.com/time/wtzresult.php?CiID=42135 . Retrieved 2007-12-28 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-12-28.  
  4. ^ "World Time Zones map" (pdf). Victoria University of Wellington website . http://www.vuw.ac.nz/~caplabtb/m302w07/time_zones.pdf . ^ "֬جլ߬Ѭլ߬ ѬӬ ٬߬ ܬѬ" (PDF). ߬ڬӬ֬ڬ֬ ڬܬڬ ֬ݬݬڬ߬Ԭ߬ ߬ Ѭ۬. http://www.vuw.ac.nz/ ~ caplabtb/m302w07/time_zones.pdf . Retrieved 2007-12-28 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-12-28.  
  5. ^ a b c"Tokelau" . New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade . http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Countries/Pacific/Tokelau.php . ^ "ܬ֬ݬѬ" . Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ڬ߬ڬ֬Ӭ ڬ߬Ѭ߬߬ լ֬ Ӭ߬֬߬֬ ԬӬݬ . http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Countries/Pacific/Tokelau.php . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-29.  
  6. ^ "Fakaofo" . http://www.fakaofo.tk/page001.html . ^ "ѬܬѬ" . http://www.fakaofo.tk/page001.html . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-29.  
  7. ^ John Byron, John Samuel Wallis, Philip Carteret, James Cook, Joseph Banks (1773). An Account of the Voyages Undertaken by the Order of His Present Majesty for making discoveries in the southern hemisphere and successfully performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Carteret, Captain Wallis and Captain Cook in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour . ^ ج Ѭ۬, ج Ѭެݬ ݬݬڬ, ڬݬڬ Ѭ֬֬, ج֬۬ެ , ج٬֬ ߬ܬ (1773). ֬ ֬֬Ӭڬ ֬Ӭݬݬ ڬܬѬ٬ Ԭ ֬ݬڬ֬Ӭ ߬Ѭ֬ ܬڬ ج߬ ݬѬڬ ֬߬ Ӭݬ߬֬߬߬ ܬެѬ߬ڬ֬ Commodore Ѭ۬, ܬѬڬѬ Ѭ֬֬ ѬڬѬ ݬݬڬ ܬѬڬѬ ֬ݬڬ, Ѭܬ, "߬լ֬Ӭ" . pp. 132, 133 . http://books.google.com/books?id=8lgBAAAAYAAJ . . 132, 133. http://books.google.com/books?id=8lgBAAAAYAAJ . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-29.  
  8. ^ a b c MacGregor, 30 ^ ѬܬԬ֬Ԭ, 30
  9. ^ Sharp, Andrew (1960). The Discovery of the Pacific Islands . ^ Sharp, ߬լ (1960). Discovery Ӭ ڬԬ ܬ֬Ѭ߬ . pp. 164 . http://books.google.com/books?id=HJYhAAAAMAAJ&q=%2212+June%22&pgis=1 . . 164.. http://books.google.com/books?id=HJYhAAAAMAAJ&q =% 2212 + 22% ڬ߬ pgis = 1 . Retrieved 2007-09-30 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-30.  
  10. ^ Polynesian Society (NZ) (1961). The Journal of the Polynesian Society . ^ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬԬ Ҭ֬Ӭ (NZ) (1961). ج߬Ѭ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ۬ܬԬ Ҭ֬Ӭ . pp. 102 . http://books.google.com/books?id=oWQLAAAAIAAJ&q=%22Smith+placed+Fakaofo+correctly%22 . . 102.. http://books.google.com/books?id=oWQLAAAAIAAJ&q =% 22Smith + + ެ֬֬ ѬܬѬ + 22% ѬӬڬݬ߬ . Retrieved 2007-09-30 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-30.  
  11. ^ a b c"Information Bulletin on Tokelau" . New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade . http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Pacific/Tokelau/0-tokelaubooklet.php . ^ "߬ެѬڬ߬߬ Ҭݬݬ֬֬߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ" . Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ڬ߬ڬ֬Ӭ ڬ߬Ѭ߬߬ լ֬ Ӭ߬֬߬֬ ԬӬݬ . http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Pacific/Tokelau/0-tokelaubooklet.php . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-29.  
  12. ^ Nathaniel Bowditch (1773–1838) was an American mathematician remembered for his work on ocean navigation. ^ լڬ ѬѬ߬ڬݬ (1773-1838) Ҭ Ѭެ֬ڬܬѬ߬ܬڬ ެѬ֬ެѬڬ ެ߬ڬ ٬ ֬Ԭ ѬҬ ߬Ѭ ܬ֬Ѭ߬ ߬ѬӬڬԬѬڬ.
  13. ^ Charles Wilkes (1849). Voyage Round the World . ^ Ѭݬ ڬݬܬ (1849). ܬԬӬ֬߬Ԭ ֬֬Ӭڬ . pp. 538 . http://books.google.com/books?id=NyQcAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA538 . . 538. http://books.google.com/books?id=NyQcAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA538 . Retrieved 2007-09-30 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-30.  
  14. ^ People^ լ
  15. ^ Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1965). The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland . ^ Ѭ߬ݬԬڬ֬ܬԬ ڬ߬ڬ ֬ݬڬܬҬڬѬ߬ڬ ݬѬ߬լڬ (1965). ߬Ѭݬ ݬ֬ӬܬԬ Ѭ߬ݬԬڬ֬ܬԬ ڬ߬ڬ ֬ݬڬܬҬڬѬ߬ڬ ݬѬ߬լڬ . pp. 43 . http://books.google.com/books?id=agAaAAAAMAAJ&q=%22June,%201889,%20and%20on%22&dq=oldham+june+1889+egeria&as_brr=0&pgis=1 . . 43.. http://books.google.com/books?id=agAaAAAAMAAJ&q =% 22June,% 201889,% 20and% 20on% 22 Ѭ = Oldham + ڬ߬ 1889 + Ԭ֬ڬ as_brr = 0 pgis = 1 . Retrieved 2007-09-30 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-30.  
  16. ^ "Official site for the Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government" . http://www.tokelau.org.nz/ . ^ "ڬڬѬݬ߬ Ѭ۬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ֬ լ֬۬Ӭ֬Ԭ ѬӬڬ֬ݬӬ" . http://www.tokelau.org.nz/ . Retrieved 2007-11-04 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-11-04. "The legislation and judicial systems are based on the Tokelau Act, 1948, and its amendments. A major law reform project is continuing; its purpose is to ensure that Tokelau has a coherent body of law which responds to current needs and gives due recognition to local custom. Unless it is expressly extended to Tokelau, New Zealand statute law does not apply to the territory. In practice, no New Zealand legislation is extended to Tokelau without Tokelauan consent. The villages have the statutory power to enact their own laws covering village affairs. International covenants on economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights, ratified by New Zealand in December 1978, apply in Tokelau. Civil and criminal jurisdiction is exercised by commissioners and the New Zealand high court." "Ѭܬ߬լѬ֬ݬӬ լ֬Ҭ߬ ڬ֬ެ ߬ӬѬ߬ ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭܬ 1948 Ԭլ, ѬӬ ߬֬ެ. ߬ ֬ܬ ֬ެ ٬Ѭܬ߬լѬ֬ݬӬ լݬجѬ֬, ֬Ԭ ֬ݬ ٬ѬܬݬѬ֬ Ҭ֬֬֬߬ڬ Ԭ ܬ֬ݬѬ ԬݬѬӬѬ߬߬Ԭ Ӭլ ٬Ѭܬ߬, ܬ ֬ѬԬڬ֬ ߬ ֬ܬڬ ֬Ҭ߬ լѬ֬ լݬج߬Ԭ ڬ٬߬Ѭ߬ڬ ެ֬߬ ҬѬ. ݬ ެ ѬѬ߬֬ ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ, ӬѬ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ Ѭ ٬Ѭܬ߬ ߬ ѬѬ߬֬ ߬ ֬ڬڬ. Ѭܬڬܬ, ߬ ٬Ѭܬ߬լѬ֬ݬӬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ, ѬѬ߬֬ ߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ҭ֬ ԬݬѬڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. լ֬֬Ӭ֬߬ ٬Ѭܬ߬ ݬ߬ެڬެ ڬ߬ڬެѬ Ӭ ҬӬ֬߬߬ ٬Ѭܬ߬, ֬Ԭݬڬڬ լ֬֬Ӭ߬ լ֬ݬ. ֬جլ߬Ѭլ߬ Ѭܬ ܬ߬ެڬ֬ܬڬ, ڬѬݬ߬ ܬݬ߬ Ѭ ԬѬجլѬ߬ܬڬ ݬڬڬ֬ܬڬ ѬӬѬ, ѬڬڬڬӬѬ߬߬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ լ֬ܬѬҬ 1978 Ԭլ, ڬެ֬߬ ܬ֬ݬѬ. ԬѬجլѬ߬ܬ ԬݬӬ߬ ڬլڬܬڬ ֬Ӭݬ֬ ݬ߬ެ֬߬߬ެ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ ӬܬԬ լ ".  
  17. ^ a b c dTokelauan Council of Ongoing Governance - Governance of Tokelau ^ ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ֬ լ֬۬Ӭ֬Ԭ ѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ - ѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ ܬ֬ݬѬ
  18. ^ "Fono decisions" . http://tokelau.org.nz/english/gfdecisions/gfnov05.html . ^ "߬ ֬֬߬ڬ" . http://tokelau.org.nz/english/gfdecisions/gfnov05.html . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-29.  
  19. ^ "Tokelau rejects self-rule" . Television New Zealand . http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/411366/661377 . ^ "ܬ֬ݬѬ Ӭ֬ԬѬ֬ ѬެѬӬݬ֬߬ڬ" . ֬ݬ֬Ӭڬլ֬߬ڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ . http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/411366/661377 . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-29.  
  20. ^ Parker, Ian (1 May 2006). "Letter from Polynesia: Birth of a nation?" . The New Yorker . http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/05/01/060501fa_fact_parker . ^ Ѭܬ֬, Ian (1 ެѬ 2006). "ڬެ ڬ ݬڬ߬֬٬ڬ: جլ֬߬ڬ ߬Ѭڬ?" . The New Yorker . http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/05/01/060501fa_fact_parker . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-29.  
  21. ^ "Tokelau stays as NZ's last colony" . Television New Zealand . http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/1318360/1415741 . ^ "ܬ֬ݬѬ Ѭ֬ ܬѬ ݬ ܬݬ߬ڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ" . ֬ݬ֬Ӭڬլ֬߬ڬ Ӭ ֬ݬѬ߬լڬ . http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/1318360/1415741 . Retrieved 2007-10-25 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-10-25.  
  22. ^ "Colonialism has no place in today's world," says Secretary General in message to Decolonization Seminar in Indonesia" , United Nations press release, May 14, 2008 ^ "ܬݬ߬ڬѬݬڬ٬ެ, ߬ ެ֬ Ӭ֬ެ֬߬߬ ެڬ", ԬӬڬ ֬߬֬Ѭݬ߬ ֬ܬ֬Ѭ Ӭ֬ ݬѬ߬ڬ լ֬ܬݬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ ֬ެڬ߬Ѭ ߬լ߬֬٬ڬ " , ԬѬ߬ڬ٬Ѭڬ Ҭ֬լڬ߬֬߬߬ Ѭڬ ֬-֬ݬڬ, 14 ެѬ 2008
  23. ^ "Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda" , New Zealand Herald , May 17, 2008
  24. ^ John Key's speech to the NZ Institute of International Affairs , April 8, 2008
  25. ^ "Net gains for tiny Pacific nation" . 2007-09-14 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6991719.stm . Retrieved 2008-05-24 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2008-05-24.  
  26. ^ "2006 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings" (PDF). 20 December 2006. pp. Table 2.5 . http://www.spc.int/prism/NSO-News/TK/2006%20Census%20Tabular%20Report%20-%20Final.pdf . Retrieved 2007-09-29 . Ӭ֬֬߬ 2007-09-29.  
  27. ^ Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.3.1.
  28. ^ Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.5.
  29. ^ Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 3.2.
  30. ^ Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 6.13.
  31. ^ Regions and territories: Tokelau , BBC News
 

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